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dc.contributor.advisorBarnard, S. L.
dc.contributor.authorBuys, Jane Elize
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-07T10:04:36Z
dc.date.available2017-02-07T10:04:36Z
dc.date.issued2007-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/5567
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The focus of the study falls on the transformation of the South African Police Force from a paramilitary organization to that of a service delivery agency. The history of the Police Force prior to 1990 was that of a paramilitary force, thus autocratic and bureaucratic of nature with a strong military discipline. The Police Force was seen by the majority of the black population as an instrument to enforce the apartheid policy of the National Party government, and was thus branded as the enforcer of the apartheid policy. The black population in South Africa was mobilized by the banned organizations, namely the ANC, PAC, SACP and others to proceed with the liberation struggle to obtain political power. Through mobilization and indoctrination to make the country ungovernable and to eventually obtain political power, the banned liberation organizations came into direct conflict and confrontation with the Police Force that had to guarantee the safety of the state at all costs. The Police Force was also seen by the majority of the black population as not accountable to the communities and only to the government of the day. The Police Force, its top structure and the average police official were of the opinion that in the era of 1960 to 1990, the Police Force acted on behalf of the state and not to protect the party that governed. With the militarization of the South African society during the 1970s with the establishment of the State Security Council (SSC) to combat the total onslaught by terrorists and communists on every facet of society, the Police Force acted more military. The Police Force increasingly and continuously worked together with the South African Defence Force (SADF) internally as well as externally, in border wars of the then Rhodesia and South West Africa. The co-operation with the SADF contributed to the Police Force becoming more military, especially when the type of training, weaponry, equipment and military operations are assessed. The states of emergency in South Africa during the 1980s also contributed to the Police Force being classified and characterized as more military in certain cases than the paramilitary. With the advent of 1990, the release of Nelson Mandela, the era of negotiations between the National Party government and the previous banned liberation organizations, of which the ANC was the most important, the South African society was placed on an irreversable path of transformation. All government departments, including the Police Force, had to be transformed. The Police Force, as it stood at the evening of 1990, was not acceptable to the majority of the black population. The ANC as main negotiator wanted to transform the Police Force to a demilitarized, impartial, representative and accountable Police Force in South Africa, with the emphasis on effective service delivery to all communities. The Police Force should thus transform from a paramilitary institution to that of a service delivery agency for all South Africans. Two components of the Police Force that needed urgent transformation were the Security Branch and the Riot Control Units. These two components were contaminated by the role that they played to maintain the security situation in South Africa, thus to protect the state. Transformation and restructuring of the Police Force effectuated that more focus should be placed on preventing crime and the establishment of a human rights culture in a new democracy. These changes were stipulated in the Constitution and the new South African Police Service Act of 1995. The new South African Police Service Act finally broke with the past by changing the name of the Police Force to that of the Police Service. Where the Police Force was centralized, the Police Service was decentralized to provincial, area and station level. A new rank structure, uniform and insignia for the Police Service were instituted to demilitarize the Police. The amalgamation of the former TBVC states’ police forces and the incorporation of the freedom fighters, namely MK and APLA members, into the new South African Police Service, had to take place with transformation. The emphasis of the new Police Service was on community policing and crime prevention. Where the Police Force focussed on reactive policing, thus the investigation of crime, the Police Service had to focus on proactive policing, thus the prevention of crime. Community Police Forums (CPFs) were also established to ensure that the police would come into contact with the needs of their local communities and to deliver an effective service to them. To make the Police Service more acceptable and service delivery orientated, it had to become more representative of the population it had to serve. The focus thus, after democracy, was on equal conditions of employment of all races and genders and an affirmative action policy that was implemented in the Public Service to appoint previously disadvantaged persons in higher posts. With the implementation of affirmative action in the Police Service no effective training was presented to previously disadvantaged persons to become effective managers. This had a very big negative impact on service delivery to the communities that the Police Service had to serve. Problems that impacted on the ability of the Police Service to deliver an effective service in a democratic South Africa, were inter alia the increase in corruption among police officials, the morale, attitude and behaviour of police officials and the increase in stress, depression and suicides amongst police officials. The new Police Service had as one of its primary tasks the prevention of crime. The tremendous increase in crime levels in South Africa as reflected in the crime statistics of the Police Service, contributed to the perception that the Police Service could not combat crime alone and that it was continuously dependent on the co-operation of other government departments, such as the Department of Justice, the JCPS clusters and the Business Against Crime (BAC) initiatives.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die klem van die studie val op die transformasie van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag van ’n paramilitêre mag na ‘n diensleweringsorganisasie. Die geskiedenis van die Polisiemag voor 1990 is dié van ‘n paramilitêre mag, dus outokraties en burokraties van aard met ‘n streng militêre dissipline. Die Polisiemag is deur die meerderheid van die swart bevolking gesien as ‘n instrument om die Nasionale Party se beleid van apartheid toe te pas, en is dus gebrandmerk as die toepasser van die apartheidsbeleid. Die swart bevolking in Suid-Afrika is deur die verbanne organisasies, naamlik die ANC, PAC, SAKP en ander gemobiliseer om die vryheidstryd voort te sit om politieke mag te verkry. Deur die mobilisasie en indoktrinasie om die land onregeerbaar te maak en die uiteindelike politieke mag oor te neem, het die verbanne bevrydingsbeweging in direkte konflik en konfrontasie met die Polisiemag gekom wat die veiligheid van die staat ten alle koste moes waarborg. Die Polisiemag is deur die meerderheid van die swart bevolking gesien as nie verantwoordbaar aan die gemeenskap nie en as uitsluitlik aanspreeklik teenoor die regering van die dag. Die Polisiemag, sy topstruktuur en die gemiddelde polisieman was egter van mening dat die Polisiemag gedurende die tydperk 1960 tot 1990 in belang van die staat opgetree het en nie soseer die politieke party wat aan bewind was, beskerm het nie. Met die militarisering van die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing gedurende die sewentigerjare van die vorige eeu het die Polisiemag ook meer militêr begin optree, met die totstandkoming van die Staat Sekuriteitsraad (SSR) om die sogenaamde totale aanslag van “kommuniste” en “terroriste” op alle fasette van die samelewing te bekamp. Die Polisiemag het toenemend en voortdurend binnelands asook buitelands met die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag (SAW) saamgewerk tydens die grensoorloë in die destydse Rhodesië en Suidwes-Afrika. Hierdie samewerking het daartoe bygedra dat die Polisiemag meer militêr geraak het, veral as gekyk word na die tipe opleiding, wapentuig, toerusting en optredes wat hulle uitgevoer het. Die noodtoestande in Suid-Afrika gedurende die tagtigerjare het verder daartoe bygedra dat die Polisiemag geklassifiseer en gekenmerk is as meer militaristies in sekere gevalle as bloot ‘n paramilitêre organisasie. Met die aanbreek van 1990, die vrylating van Nelson Mandela en die era van onderhandelings tussen die Nasionale Party-regering en voorheen verbanne vryheidsorganisasies, waarvan die ANC die belangrikste was, het dit die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing op ‘n pad van onomkeerbare transformasie geplaas. Alle staatsdepartemente, insluitend die Polisiemag, moes getransformeer word. Die Polisiemag soos dit op die vooraand van 1990 daar uitgesien het, was nie aanvaarbaar vir die meerderheid van die swart bevolking nie. Die ANC as hoof onderhandelaar wou die Polisiemag transformeer na ‘n gedemilitariseerde, onpartydige, verteenwoordigende en verantwoordbare Polisiemag in Suid-Afrika, met die klem op effektiewe dienslewering aan alle gemeenskappe. Die Polisiemag moes dus transformeer van ‘n paramilitêre instelling tot dié van ‘n diensleweringsorganisasie vir alle Suid-Afrikaners. Twee komponente van die Polisiemag wat dringend getransformeer moes word, was die Veiligheidstak en die Onluste-eenheid. Hierdie twee komponente was gekontamineer deur die rol wat hulle vervul het om die veiligheidsituasie in Suid-Afrika te handhaaf, dus die staat te beskerm. Transformasie en herstrukturering van die Polisiemag het ook teweeggebring dat meer fokus op misdaad geplaas moes word asook die vestiging van ‘n menseregtekultuur in ‘n nuwe demokrasie. Hierdie veranderinge is vervat in die Grondwet en die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiewet van 1995. Die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiewet het finaal gebreek met die benaming Polisiemag en die Polisie is gevestig as ‘n diens. Waar die Polisiemag gesentraliseerd was, is dit toe gedesentraliseer na provinsiale, area- en stasievlak. ‘n Nuwe rangstruktuur, uniform en onderskeidingstekens is vir die Polisiediens ingestel om die Polisie te demilitariseer. Die amalgamasie van die vorige TBVC-state se polisemagte asook die inkorporering van vryheidsvegters, onder andere MK- en APLA-lede in die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens, moes plaasvind met transformasie. Die klem van die nuwe Polisiediens was op gemeenskapspolisiëring en misdaadvoorkoming. Waar die Polisiemag gefokus het op reaktiewe polisiëring, dus die ondersoek van misdaad, moes die Polisiediens fokus op proaktiewe polisiëring, dus die voorkoming van misdaad. Gemeenskapspolisiëringsforums (GPFs) is ook gestig om te verseker dat die polisie beter in voeling kom met die plaaslike gemeenskap se behoeftes asook ‘n effektiewe diens lewer aan gemeenskappe. Om die Polisiediens meer aanvaarbaar en dienslewerings- georiënteerd te maak, moes dit meer verteenwoordigend raak van die bevolking wat dit dien. Die klem het dus na demokrasie begin val op gelyke indiensneming van alle rasse en geslagte en op ‘n regstellende aksiebeleid wat in die Staatsdiens en in die Polisiediens geïmplimenteer is om voorheen benadeelde persone in hoër poste aan te stel. Met die toepassing van regstellende aksie in die Polisiediens is daar egter geen effektiewe opleiding verskaf om voorheenbenadeeldes op te hef en op te lei om effektiewe bestuurders te word nie. Dit het ‘n baie groot negatiewe invloed op dienslewering deur die Polisiediens gehad in die gemeenskappe wat dit moes dien. Probleme wat ‘n invloed uitgeoefen het op die Polisiediens se vermoë om ‘n effektiewe diens in ‘n demokratiese Suid-Afrika te lewer, was onder meer die toename in korrupsie onder polisielede, die moraal, ingesteldheid en houding van polisielede en die toename in stres, depressie en selfmoorde onder polisielede. Die nuwe Polisiediens het as een van sy primêre take die voorkoming en ondersoek van misdaad. Die geweldige toename in misdaadvlakke in Suid-Afrika soos blyk uit die misdaadstatistiek van die Polisiediens, het ook bygedra tot die persepsie dat die Polisiediens nie alleen misdaad kan bekamp nie en dit het toenemend afhanklik geword van samewerking met ander staatsdepartemente, soos onder andere die Departement van Justisie, die JCPS-groeperinge en ‘Business Against Crime’ (BAC) inisiatiewe.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (History))--University of the Free State, 2007en_ZA
dc.subjectSouth African Police Service -- Reorganizationen_ZA
dc.subjectSouth African Police Service -- Managementen_ZA
dc.subjectPolice administration -- South Africa -- Historyen_ZA
dc.titleThe transformation of the South African Police from a paramilitary force to a service delivery agency 1980-1998: a historical assessmenten_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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