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dc.contributor.advisorVermeulen, P. D.
dc.contributor.authorPieterse, Johan
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-03T06:54:23Z
dc.date.available2017-02-03T06:54:23Z
dc.date.issued2010-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/5490
dc.description.abstractEnglish: As a result of the fertilizer industry’s rapid growth, and the increasing global awareness concerning environmental issues, fertilizer production facilities have come under growing pressure to comply with ever more stringent environmental regulations. There are numerous contaminants associated with the fertilizer industry. These may be released into the environment through dusts, fumes, air emissions, liquid pollutants, or solid wastes. Some of these contaminants pose serious potential health and environmental risks. Groundwater is one of the aspects of the environment heavily effected by the fertilizer industry, and the aim of this study is to provide more clarity on the extent of the pollution caused by the fertilizer industry on the quality of groundwater. The site investigated is located in the industrial area of Potchefstroom, South Africa, and includes Sasol Nitro Potchefstroom (SNP), the Kynoch Fertilizer Production Facility (KFPF), and the surrounding area. SNP is a hot and cold blend liquid fertilizer plant, and KFPF manufactured fertilizers on a full scale from 1967 until mid 2006. An in-depth investigation was conducted on the SNP site by the researcher, and data from the KFPF site were provided by SRK Consulting who carried out a study there in 2007. The predominant contaminants associated with the fertilizer industry, also found in significant concentrations the investigated area, are; nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4), phosphate (PO4), sulphate (SO4), fluoride compounds (F), chloride (Cl), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn). Various other heavy metals and radionuclides posing potential health and environmental risks may be released into the environment during the processing of phosphate rock; the types and quantities of which depend on the content of the phosphate rock. In general, NO3 (the most predominant contaminant found throughout the site), Ca, Mg, Cl, and Mn are found predominantly in solution in the groundwater (i.e., not adsorbed to soil/rock) in the saturated zone, except where there is loading from the surface within the bounds of SNP, which means that they are present in the unsaturated zone as well and leach down to the saturated zone. SO4 and K were found in little more concentrations in solution than in soil samples (in the saturated zone), but in a lesser contrast than for example, NO3 and Ca. Zn and F were found predominantly in soil samples, and primarily in the upper layer of soil. PO4 was almost exclusively found in the upper layer of soil, as well as NH4, but to a lesser extent. The general distribution of contaminants on site is attributed to their respective solubility characteristics and their tendency to be adsorbed by soil/rock. Many of the contaminants show a consistent peaking at a depth of ca. 6m. This may be attributed to the fact that pH levels are mildly acidic within the first few meters of soil, after which it increases rapidly to approximately neutral values throughout the depth of the site. Contaminants’ solubility that are pH dependant (lower pH increases solubility) would hence dissolve and leach through the first layer of soil/rock and precipitate where pH values increase. Significant chromium (Cr) concentrations were found in all the water samples taken from the boreholes on the eastern side of the site, ranging between 0.4 – 1.925mg/l. The main source of chromium was found to be the site on the southern boundary of the SNP plant, which was the location of a tannery in the past. Due to the evidence of the effectiveness of plants reducing contaminant concentrations in the northeastern corner of the site, phytoremediation is recommended as a viable option to rehabilitate the area.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: As gevolg van die vinnige groei in die kunsmis bedryf, en die internasionale bewuswording van omgewings kwessies, het die kunsmis bedryf onder groeiende druk gekom om aan al hoe meer omgewings regulerende voorvereistes te voldoen. Daar is ‘n menigde aantal besoedelingsstowwe wat geassosieër word met die kunsmis bedryf. Hierdie kan vrygestel word in die omgewing d.m.v. stof, dampe, lug emissies, vloeistof besoedeling, en vastestof afval. Sommige van hierdie besoedelingsstowwe hou ernstige potensieële gevare in vir menslike gesondheid en die omgewing. Grondwater is een van die aspekte van die omgewing wat swaar beinvloed word deur die kunsmis bedryf, en die doel van hierdie studie is om vas te stel wat die impak van die kunsmis bedryf op die kwaliteit van grondwater is. Die studie area is geleë in die industrieële gebied van Potchefstroom, Suid Afrika, en sluit die “Sasol Nitro Potchefstroom” fabriek (SNP), die “Kynoch Fertilizer Production Facility” (KFPF), en omgewing in. SNP is ‘n warm en koue meng vloeistof kunsmis fabriek, en KFPF het kunsmis volskaal vervaardig vanaf 1967 tot middel 2006. ‘n In-diepte studie is gedoen deur die navorser op die SNP fabriek, en data van die KFPF fabriek was verskaf deur SRK Consulting wat ‘n studie daar gedoen het in 2007. Die mees algemene besoedelingsstowwe wat geassosieër word met die kunsmis bedryf, en wat ook gevind is in groot konsentrasies in die studie area, is; nitraat (NO3), ammonium (NH4), fosfaat (PO4), sulfaat (SO4), verskillende forms van fluoried (F), chloried (Cl), kadmium (Cd), and sink (Zn). Verskeie ander swaar metale en radionukliedes wat ‘n potensieële bedreiging vir gesondheid en die omgewing inhou mag ook vrygestel word deur die prosessering van fosfaat klip. Die tipes en hoeveelhede hang af van die inhoud van die fosfaat klip. In die algemeen word NO3 (die mees algemene besoedelingsstof gekry in die studie gebied), Ca, Mg, Cl, en Mn hoofsaaklik in oplossing in die grondwater gevind (d.w.s. nie geadsorbeer deur die grond/klip nie) in die versadigde zone, behalwe waar daar lading op die oppervlakte is, wat beteken dat daar besoedelingsstowwe ook teenwoordig is in die oversadigde zone wat dan loog na die versadigde zone. SO4 en K word in bietjie meer konsentrasies in oplossing gevind as in grondmonsters (in die versadigde zone), maar met ‘n kleiner kontras as bv. NO3 en Ca. Zn en F word hoofsaaklik gevind in grondmonsters en oor die algemeen slegs in die boonste laag grond. PO4 word hoofsaaklik net gevind in die boonste laag grond, so ook NH4, maar tot ‘n mindere mate. Die algemene distribusie van besoedelingsstowwe word toegeskryf aan hul onderskeidelike oplosbaarheids-karakteristieke en hoe maklik hulle deur grond/klip geadsorbeer word. Baie van die besoedelingsstowwe wys ‘n konstante piek in konsentrasies op ‘n diepte van ongeveer 6m. Dit kan toegeskryf word aan die feit dat pH waardes in die eerste paar meter grond relatief suur is, waarna dit vinnig toeneem tot omgeveer neutrale waardes vir die res van die diepte van die area. Besoedelingsstowwe wat se oplosbaarheid dus afhang van pH (sommige besoedelingsstowwe los beter op in omgewings met laer pH waardes), sal loog deur die eerste paar meter grond en dan presipeteer waar pH waardes weer toeneem. Beduidende konsentrasies chroom (Cr) (0.4 – 1.925mg/l) is gevind is al die boorgate aan die ooste kant van die SNP fabriek. Dit was vasgestel dat die oorsprong van hierdie chroom die gronde aan die suide kant van SNP is waar daar ‘n leerlooiery in die verlede was. A.g.v. die bewyse van die effektiwiteit van die plante in die noord-oostelike hoek van die fabriek wat die konsentrasies van besoedelingsstowwe verlaag, word Phito-remediasie voorgestel as ‘n goeie opsie om die area te rehabiliteer.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc. (Geohydrology))--University of the Free State, 2010en_ZA
dc.subjectFertilizer manufacturingen_ZA
dc.subjectImpactsen_ZA
dc.subjectGroundwateren_ZA
dc.subjectNitrateen_ZA
dc.subjectPhosphateen_ZA
dc.subjectSafe practicesen_ZA
dc.subjectPreventionen_ZA
dc.subjectRemediationen_ZA
dc.subjectGroundwater -- Pollution -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectFertilizer industry -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectPollution preventionen_ZA
dc.titleThe impacts of fertilizer manufacturing on groundwater in South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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