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dc.contributor.advisorNel, P. J.
dc.contributor.authorMoephuli, John Thabo
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-25T08:54:17Z
dc.date.available2017-01-25T08:54:17Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/5411
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The research presented in this thesis focuses on the nature and extent of sacred sites in the Eastern Free State, namely Mautse, Motouleng, Modderpoort and Oetsi. An explorative survey was required because of the lack of evidence of the locations as well as their cultural and spiritual bearing. To achieve this objective, a working model with descriptive categories has been devised and employed in such a way as to allow comparisons between the sites. Apart from the inventory, an attempt has also been made towards a conceptual analysis of the modes of sacred ascriptions to the sites by user communities. The opening chapter of the thesis addresses the general background of sacred sites. In the general background a distinction is drawn between sites that have assumed status of being historical commemorative sites or group heritage sites, e.g. The National Women’s Monument in Bloemfontein and localised sacred sites in the Eastern Free State that are deemed as living heritage with active community and individual involvement. The thesis reflects the Heritage Resource Act of 1999 as a mechanism that defines living heritage with respect to cultural practices and indigenous knowledge entrenched in user communities. The context of the sacred sites in question has an influence on the history of the Caledon Valley in which the four sites are situated. The thesis shows that the Caledon Valley was riddled with tribal contestations between the Basotho and Boers because it was a fertile region. The methodology employed in this study is ethnographic and this relates to field research at the sites, it is descriptive, explorative and analytic. Furthermore, the thesis addresses the literature review with respect to the views of scholarly input in the subject of sacrality. The second chapter addresses the general outline of the descriptive categories of the thesis; they range from the geography/topography of the sites to the external dynamics of the sites and the conceptions of sacrality as perceived by the user communities. Pictures of the physical localities at the four sites are reflected in the chapter, which exposes the memo-history of the tribes of Mohokare as well as oral transmissions of the history of the sites. The status and significance of the sites are dealt with as cultural and religious expressions of the user communities. The thesis shows that the significance of the sites is anchored on the authority of the ancestors. Various ritual dynamics of the sites are reflected in the thesis, the evidence of “ritual making” at the localities is primordial but the study shows popular support for ritual performances by cultural and religious practitioners. The third chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation of the information obtained from informants in the fieldwork interviews. These interviews are extensively captured in the Addendum of the thesis. The presentation of data is aligned to the field interviews carried out at the sites with the research informants/participants. The thesis shows that obtaining information about a locality requires language proficiency of the site and respect for the informant who gives the data. The data obtained from fieldwork shows an entwinement of cultural practices with religious work at the sites from the apostolic faith movement, other i[dependent Christian groups and indigenous belief systems. Chapter four focuses on the comparative nature of the sites in accordance with the working model presented in chapter two. The thesis in this chapter addresses similarities and dissimilarities of the topography, the comparison of the sites’ impressions, site internal localities similarities/dissimilarities, the history, memo-history and legends of the sites are compared. It also focuses on the ascription of sacrality to the sites, which is generated through the Ancestors who in their spiritual authority assign a spot and or place to perform a ritual. The thesis addresses the aspect of sacrality as the core dimension that describes the sacred work of the sacred locations. The fifth chapter is a response to the research questions posed in chapter one, these questions addresses the nature of sacred sites and the determination of sacrality to the sites. The thesis further addresses the distinctive features of the sites in the Mohokare region and the similarities between commemorative sites like the National Women’s Monument in Bloemfontein and the sites under investigation in the study. The site image transformation of the sites relates particularly to Mautse and Motouleng and is important to the user communities. This aspect relates specifically to the on-going erection of buildings/dwellings on the grounds of the above-mentioned sites. The thesis further focuses on the complex theories of sacrality offered by distinguished scholars namely, Eliade, Smith, Turner and Sheldrake. The theoretical conclusions maintain that sacrality should be valued in relation to the context of the sites and that the complex nature of ascription of sacrality should be honoured. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the scholarly views on the determination sacrality is engaged in this chapter. The outcomes of the research process in this study have signalled a need to engage all stakeholders at the sites, local government and heritage agencies to design protective regimes and rehabilitation programmes for the healthy outlook of the sites. Finally, the tribes that claim exclusive rights to the sites and the physical localities must be further engaged to determine legitimate ownership of the sites. The spiritual ownership and the physical ownership must be probed further.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die navorsing wat in hierdie tesis bespreek word, fokus op die aard en omvang van sakrale terreine in die Oos-Vrystaat, naamlik Mautse, Motouleng, Modderpoort en Oetsi. ’n Ondersoekende opname was nodig as gevolg van die gebrek aan bewys van die plekke asook hulle kulturele en spirituele strekking. Om hierdie doel te bereik is ’n model met deskriptiewe kategorieë ontwerp en op sodanige wyse aangewend om vergelykings tussen die terreine moontlik te maak. Afgesien van die opname is ’n poging ook aangewend om ’n konseptuele analise van die modusse van sakrale toeskrywings aan die terreine deur gebruiker-gemeenskappe te onderneem. Die openingshoofstuk van die tesis gee ’n algemene agtergrond van sakrale terreine. In die algemene agtergrond is ’n onderskeid getref tussen terreine wat die status van historiese gedenkterreine of groep- erfenisterreine verkry het, byvoorbeeld die Nasionale Vrouemonument in Bloemfontein en gelokaliseerde sakrale terreine in die Oos-Vrystaat wat as lewende erfenis beskou word, met 'n aktiewe individuele en gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid. Die tesis besin oor die Wet op Nasionale Erfenishulpbronne van 1999 as ’n meganisme wat lewende erfenis definieer wat betref kulturele praktyke en inheemse kennis wat in gebruiker-gemeenskappe vasgelê is. Die konteks van die sakrale terreine onder bespreking het ’n invloed op die geskiedenis van die Caledonvallei waarin die vier terreine geleë is. Die tesis toon aan dat die Caledonvallei deurspek was van groepsgeskille tussen die Basotho en die Boere omdat dit ’n vrugbare streek is. Die metodologie wat in hierdie studie gevolg is, is etnografies van aard en hou verband met veldnavorsing by die terreine. Dit is deskriptief, ondersoekend en analities. In die tweede hoofstuk word ’n algemene omskrywing van die deskriptiewe kategorieë van die tesis bespreek. Hierdie wissel van die geografie/topografie van die terreine tot die eksterne dinamika van die terreine en die konsepte van sakraliteit, soos deur die gebruiker-gemeenskap beskou. Afbeeldings van die fisiese omgewing van die vier terreine word in die hoofstuk weergegee, wat egter die memo-geskiedenis van die stamme van Mohokare sowel as orale oordrag van die geskiedenis van die terreine blootlê. Die status en betekenis van die terreine word ondersoek as kulturele en religieuse uitdrukkings van die gebruiker-gemeenskappe. Die tesis toon aan dat die betekenis van die terreine geanker is in die gesag van die voorvaders. Verskeie rituele tipes dinamika van die terreine word in die tesis weergegee. Die bewys van “ritueel-maak” by die onderskeie liggings is primordiaal, maar die studie toon gewilde steun vir rituele handelinge deur kulturele en religieuse praktisyns. Die derde hoofstuk behels ’n data-analise en interpretasie van die inligting wat van informante in die veldwerk-onderhoude ingesamel is. Hierdie onderhoude word omvattend saamgevat in die Addendum van die tesis. Die aanbieding van data is belyn met die veldonderhoude wat by die terreine met die navorsingsinformante/deelnemers gevoer is. Die tesis toon aan dat taalvaardigheid insake die terrein en respek vir die informante wat die data verskaf nodig is om inligting in te samel. Die data wat vanuit die veldwerk bekom is, toon ’n vervlegting van kulturele praktyke met religieuse werk by die terreine van die apostoliese geloofsending en ander onafhanklike Christengroepe. Hoofstuk vier fokus op die vergelykende aard van die terreine in ooreenstemming met die werksmodel wat in hoofstuk twee uiteengesit is. Die tesis spreek in hierdie hoofstuk ooreenkomste en verskille van topografie, die vergelyking van die indrukke van die terreine, ooreenkomste en verskille tussen terrein-interne plekke, die geskiedenis, memo-geskiedenis aan, en legendes van die terreine word vergelyk. Hoofstuk vier fokus verder op die toeskrywing van sakraliteit aan die terreine, gegenereer deur die voorvaders wat in hulle spirituele gesag ’n plek kan aanwys waar ’n ritueel kan plaasvind. Die tesis ondersoek die aspek van sakraliteit as die kerndimensie wat die sakrale werk van die sakrale terreine beskryf. Die vyfde hoofstuk is ’n respons op die navorsingsvrae wat in hoofstuk tien gestel is. Hierdie vrae spreek die aard van sakrale terreine en die vasstelling van sakraliteit tot die terreine aan. Die tesis spreek verder die kenmerkende eienskappe van die terreine in Mohokare-streek asook die ooreenkomste tussen gedenkterreine soos die Nasionale Vrouemonument in Bloemfontein en die terreine wat in hierdie studie ondersoek word. Die transformasie van die beeld van die terreine het veral betrekking op Mautse en Motouleng en is belangrik vir die gebruiker-gemeenskappe. Hierdie aspek het spesifiek betrekking op die voortgaande oprigting van geboue/woonplekke op die grond van bogenoemde terreine. Die tesis fokus verder op die komplekse teorieë van sakraliteit van vooraanstaande navorsers, naamlik na Eliade, Smith, Turner en Sheldrake. Die teoretiese gevolgtrekkings handhaaf die standpunt dat sakraliteit gewaardeer behoort te word in verhouding tot die konteks van die terreine en dat die komplekse aard van toeskrywing van sakraliteit vereer behoort te word. Die uitkomste van die navorsingsproses in hierdie studie het ’n behoefte daaraan geïdentifiseer dat alle belanghebbers van die terreine, die plaaslike regering en erfenis-agentskappe te betrek ten einde beskermende regimes en rehabilitasieprogramme vir die gesonde uitgangspunt van die terreine te ontwerp. Ten slotte moet die stamme wat aanspraak maak op eksklusiewe regte insake die terreine en die fisiese liggings verder betrek word om wettige eienaarskap van die terreine te bepaal. Die geestelike en die fisiese eienaarskap van die terreine moet ook verder ondersoek word.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Centre for Africa Studies))--University of the Free State, 2016en_ZA
dc.subjectSacred space -- South Africa -- Free State
dc.subjectCultural property -- South Africa -- Free State
dc.subjectHistoric sites -- South Africa -- Free State
dc.subjectSotho (African people) -- Social life and customs
dc.titleA survey of sacred sites and construction of sacredness of space in the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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