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dc.contributor.advisorBritz, R. M.
dc.contributor.authorVan der Linde, Henry William Daniel
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-16T09:09:27Z
dc.date.available2016-11-16T09:09:27Z
dc.date.issued2009-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/4550
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The intention with this research was to remedy a deficiency in the Congregational historiography in respect of the work done by that denomination in the North-western Cape. The Dutch Reformed Church was the first Christian denomination to undertake mission work among the indigenous people in the area in the 1870s. A scientific treatise on the work done there was covered by the Rev. J.A.J. Steenkamp in his M.Th. Dissertation which was accepted by the Stellenbosch University in 1953. The title of the dissertation is Die Christe like sending fangs die benede Oranje met besondere verwysing na die werk van die NG. Kerk in Korannaland Apart from this, only a few commemorative brochures were published in which the history of the work done by the Dutch Reformed Mission Church and the Congregational Church is reflected. The one written by the Rev. D.H. De Villiers, entitled, Ebenhaeser, 1875 - 1950 was to mark the 75th anniversary of the work done by the Dutch Reformed Mission Church at Upington and its environs. The other by the Rev. S. Damon was entitled, Die verhaal van vyftig jaar van Congregational kerk werk (sic) in the Noordweste, 1902 - 1952. This brochure was issued to coincide with the golden jubilee celebrations of the Congregational churches' work in the area. Both were written in popular form and intended for the member in the pew. Over and above these there is still the unpublished autobiography of the Rev. Damon entitled, Lewenservaringe van eerw. Saul Damon oor die ajgelope eeu. This was done to mark his 1001 h birthday celebrations and contained his memoirs. However, none of these were by any means scientific studies. In the absence therefore of a scientific study on the involvement and contribution of the Congregational Church in the area this study was undertaken as a modest attempt at remedying the deficiency. Areas covered in this study include the schism in the Dutch Reformed Mission congregation at Upington at the beginning of the 201 h century; the involvement of the Congregational Church in the situation; its settlement and contribution to the community. The entry of other denominations in the area once it was opened up made co-operation among the local churches particularly in the field of education, possible. It is to the credit of the Congregational church and its minister, Rev. Damon, that the first secondary school for people of colour was opened up in 1943 at Upington. In the economic depressed situation which prevailed in the country in the 1930s caused unemployment with its concomitant hardships. Under these circumstances the Congregational church responded to the need of its members who were adversely affected by it. The farms bought by the Upington church along the Orange River in the vicinity of Keimoes were converted into settlements. There the members with an interest in agriculture could rent plots and in that way make a fresh start again. Although the area is relatively far removed from the bigger centres it was not entirely left unaffected by developments which took place elsewhere in the country. A case in point was the 'Roaring Forties', as that period is referred to here. The creation by the Government of the day of a Coloured Advisory Council in 1943 caused divisions within the ranks of the community. Some rejected it outright while others were prepared to give it a chance. Two leading members of the Upington Congregational church accepted nomination on this Council, viz. the minister, Rev. Damon and the treasurer, Mr. A.J. Ferreira. But it did not deteriorate into open animosity in the community as was the case in other parts of the country. Another development during the 1930s was the Church Union discussions among the Congregational, Methodist and Presbyterian denominations. The local churches in the Gordonia and Kenhardt districts were also invited to state their position on the issue. Their reaction was on the whole negative which to some extent could be ascribed to the fact that there was no Presbyterian presence in the area. In the end the expected merger did not materialise. For more than forty years the Congregational churches operated as a group under one minister. With the passage of time it was realized that the situation became untenable. The experiment in the early forties to settle an assistant minister there did not produce the desired effect. The alternative was decentralisation and when it was implemented in 1946 it proved ultimately to be a viable option. Church extension was started in the 1930s when Prieska was developed as an outstation of the Upington church. Work among the African section of the local community can also be seen as church extension especially when the group who severed ties with the Upington church in the late 1920s was persuaded in 1935 by the Rev. Damon to return to the Congregational fold. Although this congregation operated as a separate local church it was always ministered to by the minister of the Upington church. The development of outstations by the Upington, Keimoes and Kenhardt churches in some instances in areas far beyond the boundaries of the mother churches can also be seen as a form of church extension for by these outstations a Congregational presence was established which in time to come could develop into full status local churches. Although this study only covers the first fifty years of the Congregational Church's work in the North-western Cape it is hoped that it will serve as an incentive to others to undertake research into the period subsequent to 1952.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die doel met hierdie navorsmg was om 'n leemte in die historiografie van die Kongregasionalistiese Kerk vul met betrekking tot die werk wat deur die kerkgenootskap in Noordwes-Kaap gedoen is. Die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk was die eerste kerkgenootskap wat sendingwerk ender die inheemse inwoners in die area in die 1870s onderneem het. 'n Wetenskaplike verhandeling waarin die werk van die betrokke kerkgenootskap aldaar gedek is, het neerslag gevind in die M.Th. verhandeling van ds. J.A.J. Steenkamp. Die verhandeling is deur die Universiteit van Stellenbosch in 1953 aanvaar en is getitleld, Die Christelike sending fangs die benede Oranje met besondere verwysing na die werk van die NG. Kerk in Korannaland. Behalwe hierdie werk is daar 'n paar gedenk-brosjures gepubliseer waarin die geskiedenis van die werk wat deur die N.G. Sendingkerk en die Congregational Kerk gedoen is, gereflekteer word. Die een, geskryf deur ds. D.H. De Villiers getiteld, Ebenhaeser, 1875 - 1950 is gedoen met die oog op die viering van die 75e herdenking van die werk van die N.G. Sendinggemeente te Upington en die omgewing daar. Die ander een, geskryf deur eerw. S. Damon is getiteld Die verhaal van vyftig jaar van Congregational Kerk werk (sic) in die Noordweste, 1903 - 1952. Albei werke is geskryf in populere trant en is bedoel vir die gewone lidmaat. Daarenbowe is daar nog die ongepubliseerde outobiografie van eerw. Damon getiteld Lewenservaringe van eerw. Saul Damon oar die afgelope eeu. Dit het saamgeval met die viering van sy 1 OOe verjaarsdag en bevat sy gedenkskrifte. Nietemin, nie een van hierdie is wetenskaplike werke nie. Derhalwe, by ontstentenis van 'n wetenskaplike studie oor die toetrede en werk van die Congregational Kerk in die benede Oranjerivier is hierdie navorsing 'n beskeie poging om die betrokkenheid en bydrae van die Congregational Kerk in daardie omgewing tussen 1902 en 1952 uit te lig. Onderwerpe wat in die studie gedek word, sluit in die skeuring in die N.G. Sendinggemeente te Upington aan die begin van die 20e eeu; die toetrede van die Congregational Kerk; sy vestiging en bydrae tot die opheffing van die gemeenskap in. Nadat die gebied oopgestel is, het ander kerkgenootskappe inbeweeg wat onderlinge samewerking veral op die vlak van die onderwys moontlik gemaak het. Krediet is gegee aan die Congregational kerk en hul leraar, eerw. Saul Damon vir die stigting van die eerste sekondere skool vir anders-kleuriges te Upington in 1943. Die ekonomies depressiewe situasie wat sedert die dertigerjare in die land geheers het, het werkloosheid met die gepaardgaande lyding meegebring. Die Congregational kerk het in hierdie omstandighede uitgereik na sy lidmate wat nadelig daardeur getref is. Die plase wat deur die Upington kerk langs die Oranjerivier naby Keimoes aangekoop is, is in nedersettings omskep. Daar kon die lidmate wat 'n belangstelling in landbou gehad het erwe huur en langs hierdie weg weer 'n bestaan voer. Andere wat dakloos was kon as huurders op die nedersettings gevestig word. Hoewel die omgewing betreklik ver verwyder is van die grater sentra, is <lit nie onaangetas gelaat deur verwikkelings wat elders in die land plaasgevind het nie. 'n Goeie voorbeeld is die 'Onstuimige Veertigerjare' soos hierdie tydperk in die studie getipeer word. Die skepping deur die Regering van die dag van 'n Kleurling Adviserende Raad in 1943 het groot verdeeldheid binne die geledere van die gemeenskap teweeggebring. Sommige het dit totaal verwerp terwyl andere bereid was om dit 'n kans te gee. Twee vooraanstaande lede van die Upington Congregational kerk het benoeming op die Raad aanvaar, t.w. die leraar, eerw. Damon en die tesourier, mnr A.J. Ferreira. Dit het egter nie ontaard tot openbare vyandskap soos <lit die geval in antler dele van die land was nie. Nog 'n verwikkeling in die dertigerjare was Kerkeenheidgesprekke onder die Congregational, Metodiste en Presbiteriaanse kerkgenootskappe. Die plaaslike kerke in die Gordonia en Kenhardt distrikte is ook gevra om hul standpunt oor die aangeleentheid te stel. Hul reaksie was hoofsaaklik negatief wat tot 'n mate toegeskryf kan word aan die feit dat daar geen Presbiteriaanse teenwoordigheid in die omgewing was nie. Uiteindelik het die verwagte kerkeenheid nie gerealiseer nie. Vir meer as veertig jaar het die Congregational gemeentes as 'n groep geopereer onder een leraar. Mettertyd het die besef egter posgevat dat die situasie onhoudbaar word. Die proeflopie in die vroee veertigerjare om 'n hulp-leraar daar te vestig, het nie die gewenste vrugte afgewerp nie. Die alternatief was desentralisasie en toe dit in 1946 sy beslag gekry het, het dit uiteindelik as beste lewensvatbare opsie geblyk. Met kerkuitbreiding is daar reeds in die dertigjare begin toe Prieska as buitewyk van Upington ontwikkel het. Werk onder die Afrikane oftewel die swart deel van die gemeenskap kan ook as kerkuitbreiding gesien word. Die groep het bande met die Upington gemeente in die laat twintigerjare verbreek. In 1935 het eerw. Damon egter die groep oorreed om weer by die Congregational kerkgenootskap in te skakel. Hoewel die gemeente as 'n afsonderlike plaaslike gemeente gefungeer het, is hulle altyd deur die Upington kerk se leraar bedien. Die ontwikkeling van buitewyke deur Upington, Keimoes en Kenhardt kerke soms ver buite die grense van die moeder-gemeentes kan as 'n vorm van kerkuitbreiding gesien word. Deur hierdie buitewyke is daar 'n Congregational teenwoordigheid gevestig wat met verloop van tyd tot selfstandige plaaslike kerke kon ontwikkel. Hoewel die navorsmg slegs die eerste vyftig jaar van die Congregational Kerk se werk in Noordwes-Kaap dek, is die hoop dat dit as aansporing sal <lien vir andere om die tydperk na 1952 na te vors.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectMissions -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectCongregational churches -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectSouth Africa -- Church historyen_ZA
dc.subjectCongregationsen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (D.Th. (Ecclesiology))--University of the Free State, 2009en_ZA
dc.titleThe cradle of congregationalism in the Lower Orange River Valley 1902-1952: a church historical studyen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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