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dc.contributor.advisorBotes, L. J.
dc.contributor.authorVan der Watt, Phia
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-10T11:48:19Z
dc.date.available2016-08-10T11:48:19Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/3874
dc.description.abstractEnglish: This study was inspired by my community development praxis over the past 25 years in South Africa. Critical losses, hardship, oppression and frustrated dreams over generations left our country fragile. These wounds remained largely unprocessed in the democratic dispensation (since 1994) as poor policy decisions/implementation and disillusionment added to the complex layers of woundedness. Is the field of community development deliberately seeking to engage with this complexity – with what I call the ‘soil and soul’ of our communities? The main aim of this study was thus: To investigate if and how mainstream community development can engage with the complexity of woundedness in our communities; and to search for key elements of a healing approach that mainstream community development practitioners/workers can implement. The research methodology was qualitative, within a hermeneutic-phenomenological framework. Two case studies were used in the thematic secondary analysis. Both were community development initiatives that had engaged with woundedness. I started the study by looking for the meaning of the word development and traced it back to the Latin root velo: to veil, cover up or conceal. De-velo/de-velopment is thus a process of un-veiling and uncovering. Conversely, modern dictionaries explain development as: growth, expansion, increase, teach, change, modify, complicate or amend. The modern meaning seems to dominate mainstream community development practice globally and in South Africa (especially the dominant state-led programmes): one-dimensional plans and seductive projects focus on the economic, compensation for losses (such as land reform), service delivery and welfare/grants. The low survival and success rate of these further compounds the woundedness. It thus appears as if in-depth engagement is consequential and not deliberate. Theories on communal wounding highlight comprehensive and multiple losses suffered during violent subjugation and colonisation. The more dangerous legacy, however, is the internalisation of the messages of oppression: inferiority/superiority in the oppressed/oppressor. The result is a loss of the authentic self and destructive life strategies. The battle for healing is essentially a battle for the authentic self. This requires increased consciousness and an active fight against oppression in all its cunning forms and manifestations. This goes back to the original meaning of development: a process of un-veiling. A healing approach needs to heed certain caveats: expert facilitation is required, embedded in a high level of self-knowledge; the manifestations of wounding impact on projects and cannot be glossed over (for example the courage to risk and face failure); the process hinges on reflection and mirroring, which can benefit from an outsider view; leaders and managers are equally wounded and need to be included in healing work; attachment to unconscious material can sabotage change; and racism and oppression need to be addressed deliberately through anti-bias work. Eight key elements for a communal healing approach were distilled: (1) the need for a guiding storyline; (2) the importance of the personal-in-the-group; (3) the principle of start-with-self; (4) an empathetic desire to un-veil the true self (of all participating); (5) balancing the fear to fail and the need to risk; (6) making the journey easy for all, thus respectful facilitation; (7) embracing difficult moments, chaos and nothingness; and (8) trusting/allowing participants to find their own authentic being – and ultimate liberation. My main conclusion is that it is possible for mainstream community development to engage with the complexity of woundedness in communities. However, some vital aspects have to be in place: an understanding of the manifestations of wounding and how the healing process unfolds; and facilitators who are sufficiently prepared to do this work. This assumes effective mentoring. Healing work does not require special programmes: it can be integrated into mainstream projects. These then provide the material for the unfolding storyline and the context in which new insights can be practised. Further research may be needed regarding: the design of a mentoring system; the link between woundedness and programme design and potential; systems for reflection and reflexivity; technical issues (training, assessment, replicability and sustainability); and cross-barrier work to fight racism and other forms of oppression.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die studie is deur my werk in gemeenskapsontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika oor die afgelope 25 jaar geïnspireer. Kritiese verliese, ontbering, onderdrukking en verydelde drome oor geslagte heen het ons gemeenskap broos gelaat. Hierdie wonde is nie gedurende die demokratiese era (sedert 1994) verwerk nie. Inteendeel, swak beleidsbesluite/implementering en ontgogeling het nuwe lae tot die komplekse verwonding gevoeg. Poog die veld van gemeenskapsontwikkeling om doelbewus met hierdie kompleksiteit om te gaan – met wat ek die ‘grond en siel’ van die gemeenskap noem? Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie was dus: Om te ondersoek of en hoe hoofstroom-gemeenskapsontwikkeling met die kompleksiteit van verwonding in ons gemeenskappe kan omgaan. ʼn Verdere doel was om kernelemente van ʼn helingsbenadering te identifiseer, wat deur hoofstroom-gemeenskapswerkers geïmplementeer kan word. Die navorsingsmetodiek was kwalitatief, binne ʼn hermeneuties-fenomenologiese raamwerk. Twee gevallestudies is vir tematiese sekondêre ontleding gebruik. Beide was gemeenskapsontwikkelingprojekte wat met verwonding gewerk het. Ek het die ondersoek begin deur die oorsprong van die woord development na te vors. Dit kom van die Latynse woord velo: versluier, toemaak of bedek. De-velo / de-velopment is die proses om te ontsluier, oop te maak – of, soos dit in die Afrikaans gebruik word: ont-wikkel (uit dit waarin dit toegewikkel is/was). Daarenteen word development in moderne woordeboeke beskryf as: groei, uitbrei, vermeerder, leer, aanpas en kompliseer. Die moderne betekenis blyk te oorheers - in hoofstroom-gemeenskapsontwikkeling, globaal en in Suid-Afrika (veral in die oorheersende staatsprogramme): een-dimensionele planne en verleidelike projekte fokus op die ekonomiese, vergoeding vir verliese (soos grondhervorming), dienslewering en welsyn (byvoorbeeld toelae). Die bedroewende oorlewingsvlakke en sukses van hierdie projekte verdiep die verwonding. Dit wil dus voorkom of in-diepte bemoeienis toevallig is en nie as noodsaak gesien word nie. Teorieë oor die verwonding van gemeenskappe beklemtoon omvattende verliese deur gewelddadige onderdrukking en kolonisasie. Die gevaarliker nalatenskap is egter die internalisering van die boodskap van onderdrukking: minderwaardigheid en meerderwaardigheid van die onderdrukte en onderdrukker. Die gevolg is ʼn verlies aan die ware self en gepaardgaande destruktiewe strategieë. Die stryd vir heling is dus ʼn stryd om die ware self. Dit verg verhoogde bewussyn en ʼn aktiewe geveg teen onderdrukking in al sy geslepe vorme en uitdrukkings. Dit bring ons terug by die oorspronklike betekenis van die konsep ontwikkeling: ʼn proses van ont-sluiering. ʼn Helingsbenadering moet die volgende in ag neem: ekspert fasilitering is nodig, ondersteun deur ʼn hoë vlak van self-kennis; die manifestasies van verwonding beïnvloed projekte en kan nie geïgnoreer word nie (byvoorbeeld die moed om te waag en mislukking in die oog te kyk); die proses hang van refleksie en weerspieëling af, wat kan baat by die teenwoordigheid van ʼn buitestaander; leiers en bestuurders is net so verwond en moet ook in helingswerk ingesluit word; verknogtheid aan onbewuste materiaal kan verandering saboteer; en rassisme en ander vorms van onderdrukking moet deur doelbewuste programme aangespreek word. Agt kernelemente van ʼn gemeenskaplike helingsbenadering is geïdentifiseer: (1) die noodsaak van ʼn storielyn wat die proses rig; (2) die belangrikheid om met die persoonlike-in-die-groep te werk; (3) die beginsel van begin-met-jouself; (4) ʼn empatiese begeerte om die ware self (van almal betrokke) te ont-sluier; (5) die balansering van die vrees om te faal en die noodsaak om te waag; (6) om die reis vir almal maklik te maak (respekvolle fasilitering); (7) om moeilike momente, chaos en die niks te omhels; en (8) om deelnemers te vertrou en toe te laat om hul ware self te vind – die uiteindelike bevryding. My hoofgevolgtrekking is dat dit vir hoofstroom-gemeenskapsontwikkeling moontlik is om met die kompleksiteit van verwonding in ons gemeenskappe te werk. Sekere essensiële aspekte moet egter in plek wees: ʼn begrip van hoe verwonding manifesteer en hoe die helingsproses verloop; en fasiliteerders voldoende voorbereid om hierdie werk te doen. Dit veronderstel doeltreffende leiding (mentors). Helingswerk vereis nie spesiale programme nie: dit kan in hoofstroomprojekte geïntegreer word. Laasgenoemde verskaf die inhoud vir die ontvouing van die storielyn en ok die konteks waarbinne nuwe insigte toegepas kan word. Verdere navorsing is nodig aangaande: die ontwerp van ʼn mentorsisteem; die verband tussen verwonding en programontwerp/-potensiaal; sisteme vir besinning (refleksie); tegniese kwessies (opleiding, waardebepaling, replisering en volhoubaarheid) en werk met rassisme en ander vorme van onderdrukking oor grense heen.af
dc.description.sponsorshipUFS Research Cluster: New Frontiers in Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Developmenten_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectCommunity developmenten_ZA
dc.subjectCommunal woundingen_ZA
dc.subjectCommunal healingen_ZA
dc.subjectCritical consciousnessen_ZA
dc.subjectAuthentic selfen_ZA
dc.subjectInternalised oppressionen_ZA
dc.subjectAnti-bias worken_ZA
dc.subjectOutsider/witnessen_ZA
dc.subjectPersonal-in-group contexten_ZA
dc.subjectCommunity Development Workers Programmeen_ZA
dc.subjectDepartment of Social Developmenten_ZA
dc.subjectSouth Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Centre for Development Studies))--University of the Free State, 2016en_ZA
dc.titleEngaging with the ‘soil and soul’ of a community: rethinking development, healing and transformation in South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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