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dc.contributor.advisorNeser, F. W. C.
dc.contributor.advisorDe Kock, André
dc.contributor.advisorVan Marle-Köster, Este
dc.contributor.authorMogesse, Halima Hassen
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-14T07:17:38Z
dc.date.available2016-01-14T07:17:38Z
dc.date.copyright2007-05
dc.date.issued2007-05
dc.date.submitted2007-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/2207
dc.description.abstractEnglish: This study was carried out to generate information on village based indigenous chicken utilization, management practices, opportunities and challenges, to identify, characterize and describe the phenotypic variation of indigenous chicken populations. The study was also aimed to provide preliminary data on the genetic variation of indigenous chicken populations using microsatellite markers and to compare and evaluate the growth, egg production, reproductive performances, as well as the rate of survival of indigenous chickens under intensive and extensive management levels. Surveys using both purposive and random sampling methods were carried out in four zones of Northwest Ethiopia to describe the village-based poultry production systems and constraints in order to design future improvement and conservation strategies. The result of this study showed that the majority of the respondents were female (74.16 %). This indicated that most of the time the women, whether in male-headed or female-headed households are responsible for chicken rearing, while the men are responsible for crop cultivation and other off-farm activities. About 99% of the respondents gave supplementary feeds to their chickens. Night shelter was provided by almost all farmers in a part of the kitchen (1.36 %) or in the main house (39.07 %), in handwoven baskets (7.29 %), in bamboo cages (1.51 %) or in a separate shed purpose-made for chickens (50.77 %). The major causes of death of chickens during the study were seasonal outbreaks of Newcastle disease (locally known as “fengele”) and predation. It is important to collect and conserve local poultry breeds before they are fully replaced by the so-called improved exotic chicken breeds. As most of the poultry production is managed by women, focusing on training and education of women will aid not only the improvement of poultry production but also family management, family planning and the overall living standards of the family and the community. In the phenotypic characterization, a total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Seven distinct indigenous chicken populations from four administrative zones were identified. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage colour. About 25.49 %, 22.30 %, and 16.40 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colours, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity regarding plumage colours, like black, multicoloured, black with white tips, reddish brown and white with red stripes. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain heads (51.18 %), yellow shanks (64.42 %), and pea comb (50.72 %). About 97.52 % of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed in quantitative characteristics such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits exhibited in an intensive management system. In the genetic analysis, indigenous chicken populations representing seven different areas of Northwest Ethiopia were studied using microsatellite markers to determine genetic diversity and relatedness. Three South African chicken lines and two commercial chicken (RIR and WLH) breeds were included for control. A high genetic diversity was observed overall loci and populations with a heterozygosity value of 0.76. The largest heterozygosity (0.93) across all markers was observed in the Mecha chicken population, while the smallest heterozygosity across all loci (0.66) was observed in the White Leghorn breed. A higher genetic distance (lower genetic similarity) between the RIR commercial chicken breed and the Ethiopian indigenous chicken populations were observed compared to RIR and South African fowls. This indicates that the Ethiopian indigenous chicken populations have still not been highly diluted by the RIR commercial chicken breed either through the extension program or through the regional poultry breeding and multiplication institutes. The present result indicated that the clustering of the chicken populations is in accordance with their geographical origin and market places. Microsatellite markers used in this study were found suitable for the measurement of the genetic variation in Ethiopian chicken populations. These results can therefore serve as an initial step to plan the characterization and conservation of indigenous chickens in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A study on the performance of indigenous chicken populations in terms of growth, carcass yield, egg production and egg quality was evaluated under intensive management conditions compared with the RIR commercial breed. Significant differences were observed among the indigenous chicken genotypes of Northwest Ethiopia for body weight, feed intake, FCR, mortality percentage at different phases of growth, indicating the phenotypic variations of the different chicken ecotypes. The Mecha chickens had the highest growth rate, followed by Guangua and Melo- Hamusit chickens, indicating that these lines are good for meat production. Analysis of carcass characteristics has shown that most of the male and female finisher grower chickens have a higher dressing percentage than the commercial RIR chicken breed managed under intensive management. Furthermore, data on age at point of lay (days) indicated that indigenous chickens reached the first egg production stage from 144 to 168 days, while the RIR breed started producing eggs at 150 days. In general, the current result indicates that the performance of the indigenous chickens is comparable with the RIR breed under intensive management systems. This indicates that there is a chance for better performance if proper selection and breeding plan are designed for indigenous chickens.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Hierdie studie is onderneem om inligting in te win oor bestuurspraktyke ten opsigte van inheemse hoenderboerdery op die platteland van Ethiopië, om groei, eierproduksie, reproduksieprestasies, sowel as oorlewingstempo van inheemse hoenders onder intensiewe sowel as ekstensiewe vlakke te evalueer, om die fenotipiese variasies van inheemse hoenderpopulasies te tipeer en te beskryf deur standaardprosedures te volg en om die omvang van die genetiese variasie binne en tussen inheemse hoenderpopulasies te beraam deur gebruik te maak van mikrosatellietmerkers. Opnames wat van beide doelbewuste en toevallige monsteringsmetodes gebruik gemaak het is in vier sones van Noordwes-Ethiopië gedoen om die plattelandse hoenderproduksiestelsels en ─beperkings te beskryf sodat toekomstige verbeterings─ en bewaringstrategieë ontwikkel kan word. Die resultate van die studie het getoon dat die meerderheid van die respondente vroulik was (74.16 %). Dit het aangedui dat vrouens, ongeag of daar ‘n man of vrou aan die hoof van die huishouding is, gewoonlik verantwoordelik is vir die hoenderboerdery, terwyl die man vir gewasverbouing en ander buite-boerdery-aktiwiteite verantwoordelik is. Ongeveer 99% van die respondente het aanvullende voeding aan hulle hoenders verskaf. Nagskuiling is verskaf in ‘n afgeskorte deel van die kombuis (1.36 %) of woonhuis (39.07 %), in handgeweefde mandjies (7.29 %), bamboeshokke (1.50 %) of in ‘n aparte konstruksie spesiaal vir hoenders opgerig (50.77 %). Die hoofoorsake van vrektes onder hoenders tydens die duur van die studie was seisoenale uitbreek van Newcastle-siekte (plaaslik bekend as ’’fengele’’) en roofdiere. Dit is belangrik om plaaslike hoenderlyne te bewaar voordat hulle heeltemal vervang word deur die sogenaamde “verbeterde” eksotiese rasse. Aangesien pluimveeproduksie hoofsaaklik deur vroue behartig word, sal opleiding en opvoeding van vroue nie alleenlik hoenderproduksie bevorder nie, maar ook gesinsbestuur en ─beplanning en die algemene lewenstandaarde van die gesin en die gemeenskap. In die fenotipiese tipering is ‘n totaal van driehonderd hoenders onder veldtoestande getipeer vir kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe eienskappe deur gebruik te maak van standaard hoenderprosedures. Sewe duidelik afgebakende hoenderpopulasies is uit vier administratiewe sones geïdentifiseer. Beduidende fenotipiese variansie t.o.v. kleur van vere is tussen die populasies waargeneem. Ongeveer 25.49 %, 22.30 % en 16.40 % van die hoenders het onderskeidelik wit, gryserige en rooi vere gehad. Die res het taamlike heterogeniteit t.o.v. verekleedkleur getoon, soos swart, veelkleurig, swart met wit aan die veerpunte, rooibruin en wit met rooi strepe. Die volgende kenmerke is ook waargeneem: nie-vlesige koppe (51.18 %), geel bene (54.42 %) en ertjiekamme (50.72 %). Ongeveer 97.52 % van die hoenders het geen vere aan hul bene gehad nie. Variasie ten opsigte van kwantitatiewe kenmerke soos beenlengte, eiergrootte en liggaamsgewig is ook waargeneem, asook ander reproduktiewe kenmerke wat in ‘n intensiewe bestuurstelsel waargeneem kan word. In die genetiese ontleding is inheemse populasies verteenwoordigend van sewe verskillende gebiede in Noordwes-Ethiopië bestudeer deur gebruik te maak van mikrosatellietmerkers om genetiese diversiteit en verwantskap te bepaal. Drie Suid-Afrikaanse hoenderlyne en twee kommersiële hoenderrasse (RIR en WLH) is ingesluit vir vergelykingsdoeleindes. Die Ethiopiese hoenderpopulasie Gassay/Farta het die hoogste getal allele per lokus (10) vir mikrosatellietmerker MCW 158 gehad. Hoë genetiese diversiteit is oor alle loci waargeneem vir alle populasies met heterosigositeitswaarde van 0.76. Die grootste heterosigositeit (0.93) oor alle merkers is in die Meccha-hoenderpopulasie waargeneem, terwyl die kleinste heterosigositeit oor alle loci (0.66) in die wit Leghornras waargeneem is. Die RIR kommersiële hoenderras het hoër genetiese afstand (laer genetiese ooreenkoms ) met die Ethiopiese inheemse hoenderpopulasies getoon as die Suid-Afrikaanse hoenders. Daaruit kan afgelei word dat die Ethiopiese inheemse hoenderpopulasies nog nie beduidend verwater is met die RIR kommersiële ras óf deur die voorligtingsprogram óf die streeksinstitute vir pluimveeteling nie. Van die filogenetiese stamboomresultaat kan afgelei word dat die groepering van die hoenderpopulasies in die huidige studie in ooreenstemming is met die oorsprong en bemarkingstelsels van hierdie inheemse hoenders ─ ‘n aanduiding dat die mikrosatellietmerkers wat in hierdie studie gebruik is, geskik was vir die meting van die genetiese biodiversiteit en verwantskap van Ethiopiese hoenderpopulasies. Hierdie resultate kan gevolglik dien as ‘n aanloop tot die tipering en bewaring van inheemse hoenders in die Amharastreek van Ethiopië. Die prestasie van inheemse populasies met betrekking tot groei, karkasopbrengs, eierproduksie en eierkwaliteit is met dié van die RIR kommersiële ras vergelyk. Opvallende verskille tussen die inheemse hoendergenotipes van Noordwes-Ethiopië is waargeneem ten opsigte van liggaamsgewig, voerinname, VOV en mortaliteitspersentasie tydens verskillende groeifases, wat ‘n aanduiding is van die genetiese variasies van die verskillende hoender-ekotipes. Die Mechahoenders het die hoogste groeitempo gehad, gevolg deur die Guyanga– en Melo– Hamusithoenders – ‘n aanduiding dat hierdie lyne baie geskik is vir vleisproduksie. ‘n Ontleding van karkaseienskappe het getoon dat die meeste van die manlike en vroulike afrondingshoenders ‘n hoër uitslagpersentasie het as die kommersiële RIR-ras onder intensiewe bestuur. Data ten opsigte van ouderdom met aanvang van lê (dae) het aangetoon dat inheemse hoenders die eerste eierproduksiestadium vanaf 144 tot 168 dae bereik het, terwyl die RIR-ras op 150 dae begin het om eiers te produseer. Oor die algemeen toon die huidige uitslag dat inheemse hoenders vergelykbaar met die RIR-ras presteer onder intensiewe bestuurstelsels. Dit impliseer die moontlikheid van beter prestasie met dien verstande dat behoorlike seleksie en teelprogramme op inheemse hoenders toegepas word.af
dc.description.sponsorshipThird World Organization for Women in Science (TWOWS)en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences))--University of the Free State, 2007en_ZA
dc.subjectChickens -- Ethiopia -- Geneticsen_ZA
dc.subjectChickens -- Breeding -- Ethiopiaen_ZA
dc.subjectPerformanceen_ZA
dc.subjectMicrosatellitesen_ZA
dc.subjectIndigenous chickensen_ZA
dc.subjectGenetic variabilityen_ZA
dc.subjectEgg qualityen_ZA
dc.subjectPhenotypic Variationsen_ZA
dc.subjectEthiopiaen_ZA
dc.titlePhenotypic and genetic characterization of indigenous chicken populations in Northwest Ethiopiaen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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