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dc.contributor.advisorCeronio, G. M.
dc.contributor.advisorDu Preez, C. C.
dc.contributor.authorVan Tonder, Johan Tobias
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-14T06:49:21Z
dc.date.available2016-01-14T06:49:21Z
dc.date.copyright2008
dc.date.issued2008
dc.date.submitted2008
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/2197
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Soil properties (biological and chemical) and crop response are dependent on the inherent soil organic matter content. Since South African soils are naturally low in organic matter content commercial humates serve as attractive soil amendments in improving soil quality. This is the result of commercialisation giving the impression that humates have biological and chemical properties similar to those in soil humus. In an attempt to substantiate these claims three separate experiments were conducted at the University of the Free State to examine the effect of K-humate on soil properties and wheat response during the 2006 growing season. The biological (bacterial and fungal count) response was evaluated in growth chambers by applying three different K-humate products at rates of 0, 3 and 5 L ha-1 in a band on a red loamy sand topsoil. Soil cores were sampled on a weekly basis for six weeks and microscopically analysed. Bacterial and fungal count differed significantly as a result of the product by application rate interaction but no consistency was found. Over time both the bacterial and fungal activity increased rapidly for week 2 and 3 but decreased at week 3 for the bacteria. Both the organisms’ reactions stabilised from week 3 to 6. The chemical soil properties were also tested in growth chambers but only K-humate (single product) was applied as a coating on granular 2:3:2 (22) fertiliser at 0 and 3 L ha-1 in a band 50 mm below the soil surface. The chemical soil properties showed no response after 5 months to the application of K-humate. A glasshouse experiment was also conducted to evaluate the growth and yield response of wheat on three textural class topsoil’s (8, 22 and 37% clay) and four K-humate applications (0 L ha-1, 3 L ha-1 single application, and 3 and 6 L ha-1 split application – 50% at planting and 50% at tillering). K-humate as a coating on 2:3:2 (22) granular fertiliser was banded and Greensulph (27) topdressed at the required fertiliser rate for a yield potential of 8 t ha-1. Plant growth parameters were analysed at tillering, stem elongation and maturity, both above- and below-ground. Virtually no significant influences were found with the K-humate application rate and soil texture interaction on the measured parameters. Notwithstanding this, positive effects were noticed and a split application whereof half of the K-humate was applied at planting and the other half at tillering showed the best results. A field experiment was also conducted to examine K-humates influence on wheat growth and yield. Two experiments was conducted, one under full irrigation (700 mm) with a yield potential of 8 t ha-1 and the other supplementary irrigation (350 mm) with a yield potential of 4 t ha-1. K-humate was applied as a coating on granular 2:3:2 (22) fertiliser and bandplaced either as a single application (0, 1.5, 3, 5 and 6 L ha-1) or a split application (5 and 6 L ha-1) 50% at planting and 50% (K-humate as a coating on Greensulph (27)) at tillering. Irrigation was applied using a line source irrigation system. The field experiment confirmed the results obtained in the glasshouse with virtually no significant effects as a result of the applied K-humate on the measured plant parameters.en_US
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Grondeienskappe (biologies en chemise) en gewasreaksie is afhanklik van die inherente grond organiese materiaalinhoud. Aangesien Suid-Afrikaanse gronde oor ’n natuurlik lae organiese materiaal inhoud beskik word kommersiële humate as ’n aantreklike grondverbeteringsmiddel vir grondkwaliteit beskou. Dit het took tot gevolg dat kommersialisering die indruk skep dat humate oor biologiese en chemise eienskappe soortgelyk aan die van grondhumus beskik. In ’n poging om hierdie aannames te staaf is drie verskillende eksperimente by die Universiteit van die Vrystaat uitgevoer om die invloed van K-humate op grondeienskappe en koring se reaksie daarop gedurende die 2006 groeiseisoen te ondersoek. Die biologiesie (bakteriese en swamtellings) reaksie is in groeikabinette geëvalueer deur die toediening van drie verskillende K-humaatprodukte by toedieningspeile van 0, 3 en 5 L ha-1 wat op ’n rooi leemsand bogrond gebandplaas is. Grondkerne is op ’n weeklikse basis vir 6 weke gemonster en mikroskopies ontleed. Bakteriese en swamtellings het betekenis verskille getoon as resultaat van die produk by toedieningspeilinteraksie, maar geen konsekwentheid in die resultaat is gevind nie. ’n Versnelde reaksie van beide die bakteriese en swamaktiwiteit is vir weke 2 en 3 waargeneem, maar het reeds by week 3 vir bakterië afgeneem. Beide organismes se reaksies het van week 3 to 6 gestabiliseer. Die chemiese grondeienskappe is ook in die groeikabinette geevalueer, maar slegs K-humaat (enkelproduk) is as ’n deklaag op die 2:3:2 (22) korrelkunsmis teen 0 en 3 L ha-1 in ’n band 50 mm onder die grondoppervlak toegedien. Die chemiese grondeienskappe het geen reaksie na 5 maande op die K-humaattoediening getoon nie. ’n Glashuispotproef is ook uitgevoer om die groei en opbrengsreaksie van koring op drie bogrond tekstuurklasgronde (8, 22 en 37% klei) en vier K-humaattoedienings (0 en 3 L ha-1 enkeltoedienings en 3 en 6 L ha-1 verdeelde toedieings – 50% met plant en 50% met stoel) te evalueer. K-humaat is as ’n deklaag op gekorrelde 2:3:2 (22) kunsmis in ’n band en Greensu;ph (27) as topbemesting vir ’n opbrengspotensiaal van 8 t ha-1 toegedien. Plant parameters vir beide bo- en ondergrondse plantdele is op stoel-, pyp- en fisiologies rypstadia ontleed. Daar is feitlik geen betekenisvolle verskille vir die toegediende Khumaat en verskillende tekstuurklasgronde interaksie gevind nie. Nieteenstaande die waarneming is daar wel ‘n positiewe invloed waargeneem met die verdeelde toedienings waarvan die helfte van die K-humaat met plant en die ander helfte met stoel toegedien is wat die beste gevaar het. ’n Veldproef is ook uitgevoer om die invloed van K-humaat op koring se groei en opbrengs te evalueer. Twee proewe is uitgevoer waarvan een ten volle (700 mm) besproei is met ’n opbrengspotensiaal van 8 t ha-1 en die ander aanvullend (350 mm) besproei is met ’n opbrengspotensiaal van 4 t ha-1. K-humaat is toegedien as ’n deklaag op 2:3:2 (22) wat gebandplaas is as ’n enkeltoediening (0, 1.5, 3, 5, en 6 L ha-1) of ’n verdeelde toediening (5 en 6 L ha-1) 50% met plant en 50% (K-humaat as ‘n deklaag op op Greensulp (27)) tydens die stoelstadium. Besproeiing is toegedien met ’n lynbronbesproeiingstelsel. Die veldproef het die glashuisproef se resultate bevestig waar daar weereens feitlik geen betekenisvolle invloed deur die toediening van K-humaat op die gemeete plantparameters gevind is nie.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_US
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc.Agric. (Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences))--University of the Free State, 2008en_US
dc.subjectHumatesen_US
dc.subjectSoils -- Potassium contenten_US
dc.subjectWheat -- Growthen_US
dc.subjectWheat -- Irrigationen_US
dc.titleEffect of potassium humate on soil properties and growth of wheaten_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_US


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