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dc.contributor.advisorFick, C. P. Van der Merwe
dc.contributor.authorSwanepoel, Cornelis Francois
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-03T09:56:13Z
dc.date.available2015-12-03T09:56:13Z
dc.date.issued2006-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1952
dc.description.abstractEnglish: This study has investigated the emergence of an international criminal justice order from its inception to its current status. It has investigated the emergence of an international criminal justice order by referring to: (1) the early attempts by nations to control the waging of war; (2) the influence and impact of the Nuremberg and Tokyo International Criminal Tribunals; (3) the emergence and rooting of international human rights and humanitarian law in coexistence with international criminal law, particularly since the adoption of the 1949 Geneva Conventions; (4) the influence and impact of the international criminal ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda; (5) recent attempts by states to exercise universal jurisdiction such as in the Pinochet and Congo cases; (6) the establishment of the International Criminal Court and numerous aspects of international criminal law that have been established by the Rome Treaty creating the Court; (7) the obstacles that are faced by the court; (8) other transitional justice mechanisms in an ongoing attempt to provide accountability and redress where serious infringements of international human rights and humanitarian law have occurred; and (9) a South African perspective of the past and current status of international law in domestic law. It has established that although the sovereignty and equality of states remains a cornerstone of international law, inroads have been made into the doctrine of absolute state sovereignty to the extent that it is now universally recognised that certain crimes are so reprehensible in their nature, that they warrant prosecution wherever they are committed, no matter by whom they are committed. It has further established that international criminal law and justice did not evolve overnight and most of its current status is ascribable to unfortunate and indescribable human suffering. It has provided a historical perspective of the early attempts to regulate the waging of war, and showed the impact of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and Tokyo, most significantly establishing individual accountability as opposed to only state accountability. The latter development led to an introduction, resurgence and development of human rights and particularly humanitarian law subsequent to World War II, to the extent that the destiny of international criminal law is unavoidably interwoven with the former two branches of international law. It proceeded to record and demonstrate the impact on international law generally and international criminal law in particular, with the establishment of the ICTY and the ICTR. It has demonstrated that the establishment of these two ad hoc tribunals provided impetus to renewed calls for the establishment of a permanent International Criminal Court and has greatly contributed to the recording and further development of international criminal law. Lastly, it has provided much impetus for states to exercise universal jurisdiction over prosecution of core crimes. The latter impetus provided the background to a chapter in this work indicating positive steps by states to exercise universal jurisdiction. It proceeded to provide the historical background for the eventual establishment of the International Criminal Court and concurrently demonstrated its impact on the development of an international order of justice. The research provided a brief analysis of transitional justice models in recent times, contributing to an analysis of what lessons may be learned from these attempts of various transitional societies. It then proceeded to provide a South African perspective, particularly the evolution of the status of international law in South African domestic law. The thesis concluded that the need for a consistent international criminal justice order is validated and although the international community is continually shocked by ongoing atrocities around the globe, significant progress has been made in recent decades to extend the international rule of law.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Hierdie navorsing het die ontstaan van ‘n internasionale strafregsorde van vroeg tot sy huidige status nagespoor. Dit het die ontluiking van sodanige internasionale strafregsorde ondersoek deur te verwys na: (1) die vroeë pogings van state om oorlogsvoering te beheer/reguleer; (2) die invloed en uitwerking van die Nuremberg en Tokyo internasionale straftribunale; (3) die ontstaan en vestiging van internasionale mense en humanitêre reg in medebestaan met internasionale strafreg sedert veral die aanvaarding van die 1949 Geneefse Konvensies; (4) die invloed en uitwerking van die internasionale straf ad hoc tribunale vir die vorige Yugoslavia en die vir Rwanda; (5) onlangse pogings deur state om universele jurisdiksie uit te oefen soos in the Pinochet en Congo v België sake; (6) die ontstaan van die Internasionale Strafhof en die vele aspekte van internasionale strafreg wat beslag gekry het in die verdrag van Rome wat die hof gevestig het; (7) die huidige en toekomstige struikelblokke wat die laasgenoemde hof konfronteer; (8) ander oorgangs geregtigheidsmeganismes in ‘n voortgesette poging om verantwoording en vergoeding te verleen in gevalle waar ernstige inbreuke plaasgevind het op internasionale mense-en humanitêre reg; en het (9) ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief op die vorige en huidige status van internasionale reg in die Suid Afrikaanse reg verskaf. Die navorsing het aangetoon dat ten spyte daarvan dat die beginsel van staatssoewereiniteit ‘n hoekssteen bly van die internasionale reg, dit gekwalifiseer word deurdat dit universeel aanvaar word dat sekere misdade so afkeuringswaardig van aard is dat dit vervolging regverdig ongeag van persoon of plek. Die navorsing het verder aangetoon dat die soeke na ‘n geloofwaardige internasionale strafreg en geregtigheidsstelsel oor eeue heen ontwikkel het. Die huidige inhoud daarvan is die ervaringsproduk ontleen uit tragiese en onbeskryflike menselyding. Die navorsing het ‘n historiese perspektief verskaf van die vroeë pogings om oorlogsvoering te reguleer en het die uitwerking van die Internasionale Militêre Tribunale van Nuremberg en Tokyo aangetoon, veral die ingrypende vestiging van individuele aanspreeklikheid in plaas van blote staatsaanspreeklikheid in internasionale strafreg. Die laasgenoemde ontwikkeling het veral plaasgevind na afloop van die tweede Wêreldoorlog tot die mate dat die lot van internasionale strafreg huidig baie nou vervleg is met internasionale mense en humanitêre reg. Die navorsing het voortgegaan om die ontwikkeling van internasionale reg, bepaald internasionale strafreg aan te toon met die totstandkoming van die Internasionale Straftribunaal vir die vorige Yugoslavië en die Internasionale Straftribunaal vir Rwanda. Dit het aangetoon dat die daarstelling van hierdie twee straftribunale grootliks die weg gebaan het vir die daarstelling van die Internasionale Strafhof, bygedra het tot die boekstawing van internasionale strafreg en laastens aansporing verleen het aan state om vervolging van oortreding van die sogenaamde “gruwelmisdade” in te stel. Die laasgenoemde het die agtergrond verskaf vir pogings deur state om universele jurisdiksie uit te oefen. Die historiese agtergrond en die uiteindelike vestiging van die Internasionale Strafhof is geboekstaaf en in samehang daarmee, die ontwikkeling van ‘n internasionale strafregsorde. Die navorsing het ‘n kort analise van stelsels van oorgangsgeregtigheid gedoen met ‘n boekstawing van lesse wat daaruit geneem kan word. Dit het hierna ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief verskaf, veral met betrekking tot die evolusie van die status van internasionale reg binne die Suid Afrikaanse reg. Die tesis het afgesluit met die gevolgtrekking dat daar ‘n behoefte is vir ‘n internasionale strafregsorde. Ten spyte van skokkende menseregte vergrype oor die wêreld heen, is aansienbare vordering die afgelope dekades tog gemaak met die uitbreiding van die internasionale regsoewereiniteit.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectInternational Criminal Tribunal for Rwandaen_ZA
dc.subjectInternational Military Tribunalen_ZA
dc.subjectInternational Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugen_ZA
dc.subjectInternational order of justiceen_ZA
dc.subjectNuremberg trialsen_ZA
dc.subjectProsecuting Pinocheten_ZA
dc.subjectSovereignty of Statesen_ZA
dc.subjectTransitional justice mechanismsen_ZA
dc.subjectUniversal jurisdictionen_ZA
dc.subjectInternational justiceen_ZA
dc.subjectInternational Criminal lawen_ZA
dc.subjectInternational Criminal Courten_ZA
dc.subjectImmunityen_ZA
dc.subjectExtraditionen_ZA
dc.subjectCriminal jurisdictionen_ZA
dc.subjectCriminal procedure (International law)en_ZA
dc.subjectInternational courtsen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (LL.D. (Procedural Law and Law of Evidence))--University of the Free State, 2006en_ZA
dc.subjectExtra-territorial jurisdictionen_ZA
dc.subjectImmunityen_ZA
dc.titleThe emergence of a modern international criminal justice orderen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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