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dc.contributor.advisorBloemhoff, H. J.
dc.contributor.advisorWalker, S.
dc.contributor.authorStroebel, Leoni Catherine Emilie
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-20T12:27:33Z
dc.date.available2015-11-20T12:27:33Z
dc.date.copyright2006-11
dc.date.issued2006-11
dc.date.submitted2006-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1708
dc.description.abstractEnglish: All adults involved in children’s sport affect the nature of the sporting experience, and to a large extent determine whether or not it is a positive experience for children. Of all adults involved, the parents are perhaps the most important and play the most significant role in children’s sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how a group of competitive and professionally trained adolescent swimmers perceived parental involvement and how it affected their total sport experience. Participants in the study were 93 (45 male and 48 female) competitive adolescent swimmers between the ages of 13 and 22 years, who received professional coaching for 1 to 15 years, and trained for 5 to 11 months per annum. Respondents completed the parental involvement in sport questionnaire (PISQ). The questionnaire consists of three multi-item scales. The three scales measured Directive behaviour (DB), Active involvement (AI), and Praise and understanding (PU). A single item of Pressure (P) was included as a dependent variable. The questionnaire was designed to elicit responses about the behaviour of parents with regard to their children’s swimming activities. Respondents identified the frequency with which certain behaviours were (a) exhibited by, and (b) desired of their parents. Discrepancies between exhibited and desired behaviour indicated the extent of respondents’ satisfaction with these behaviours. Single sample t-tests showed that respondents perceived insufficient levels of DB, and satisfactory levels of PU, AI and P from their mothers. The results revealed that swimmers perceived satisfactory levels of pressure from their mothers, which leads to the conclusion that they find the amount of pressure acceptable. Single sample t-tests to determine the behaviour of fathers, showed satisfactory levels of DB, which suggests that fathers exhibit an appropriate level of directing or controlling of their children’s sporting experience. This is in contrast with the excessive levels of PU, AI and P that the respondents perceive from their fathers. Respondents may feel pressured by disproportionate praise as this might be accompanied by efforts to take control to an unacceptable degree. A second questionnaire was distributed to assess participants’ enjoyment of their swimming. This questionnaire consists of three questions measuring the enjoyment of sport. The data revealed that the majority of the respondents (92%) were very satisfied with their swimming experience in general and indicated that they enjoyed it to a large extent. The data suggests that the current level of pressure the swimmers experienced did not have any affect on their level of enjoyment. The study indicates that parents who express satisfaction with children’s sport performance, who interact positively with them, and who are generally positively involved and supportive in the children’s sport experience may enhance the enjoyment they derive from their sport participation. Optimal parental involvement in sport could be achieved by having well-organised, well-run programmes, and by providing parents with an opportunity to receive some education about the sport programmes in which their children are involved. A proposed document, “Practical Guidelines for Swimmers’ Parents”, was prepared in order to provide parents with a course of action to maximise their involvement. It is recommended that the above-mentioned document be distributed to the parents of the participants in this study.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Volwassenes wat betrokke is by kinders se sport het ‘n invloed op die aard van die sportervaring, en bepaal in ‘n groot mate of die ervaring positief sal wees vir die kind. Van alle betrokke volwassenes, is die ouers waarskynlik die belangrikste en speel hulle die mees noemenswaardige rol in kinders se sport. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ondersoek in te stel na die persepsie van ‘n groep kompeterende, professioneel afgerigte adolessente swemmers oor ouerbetrokkenheid en hoe dit hulle totale sportervaring beïnvloed. Deelnemers in die studie was 93 (45 manlik en 48 vroulik) kompeterende adolessente swemmers tussen die ouderdomme van 13 en 22 jaar, wat professionele afrigting ontvang het vir 1 tot 15 jaar, en oefen vir 5 tot 11 maande per jaar. Respondente het die ouerbetrokkenheid in sport vraelys (PISQ) voltooi. Die vraelys bestaan uit drie multi-item skale. Die drie skale het Voorskriftelike gedrag (DB), Aktiewe betrokkenheid (AI) en Aanmoediging en begrip (PU) gemeet. ‘n Enkele item van Druk (P) was ingesluit as afhanklike veranderlike. Die vraelys was ontwerp om die persepsies van die respondente te toets t.o.v. die gedrag van hul ouers wanneer dit kom by die kinders se swem aktiwiteite. Respondente moes die voorkoms van sekere gedrag identifiseer aan die hand van a) vertoon deur, en b) verlang van hulle ouers. Verskille tussen vertoonde en verlangde gedrag was ‘n aanduiding van die mate van tevredenheid oor die gedrag wat hulle ouers openbaar het. Enkel t-toetse het aangedui dat respondente onvoldoende vlakke van DB waargeneem het, maar bevredigende vlakke van PU, AI en P van hulle moeders. Die uitslae dui daarop dat swemmers ook bevredigende vlakke van druk ervaar deur hulle moeders, wat lei tot die gevolgtrekking dat hulle die hoeveelheid druk aanvaarbaar vind. Enkel t-toetse om te bepaal wat die gedrag van vaders kenmerk, het bevredigende vlakke van DB aangedui, wat aandui dat vaders ‘n aanvaarbare vlak van voorskriftelike of beherende gedrag openbaar t.o.v. hulle kinders se sportervaring. Dit is kontrasterend met die hoë vlakke van PU, AI en P wat die respondente van hulle vaders ondervind. Respondente mag druk voel wanneer aanmoedinging buite verhouding gegee word en dit ervaar word as ‘n poging om beheer oor te neem. ‘n Tweede vraelys was versprei om die deelnemers se vlak van genot t.ov. hul swem aktiwiteite te bepaal. Die vraelys het bestaan uit drie vrae oor die genot wat hulle ervaar in hulle sport. Die data het aangedui dat die oorgrote meerderheid (92%) baie tevrede is met hulle swem ervaring in die algemeen en dat hulle dit baie geniet. Die data suggereer dat die vlakke van druk wat hulle tans ervaar geen invloed het op die vlakke van genot wat hulle ervaar nie. Die studie toon dat ouers wat tevredenheid uitspreek oor hulle kinders se sport optredes, wat positiewe interaksie met hulle kinders het, en wat oor die algemeen ondersteunend optree t.o.v. hul kinders se sportervaring die genot wat kinders uit sportdeelname ervaar, kan verhoog. Optimale ouerbetrokkenheid in sport kan verkry word deur goed georganiseerde programme, wat gekontroleer en beheer word en deur die skep van geleenthede vir ouers om opvoeding en hulp te ontvang oor die sport waaraan hulle kinders deelneem. ‘n Voorgestelde dokument, “Practical Guidelines for swimmers’ parents”, is opgestel om ouers te voorsien van praktiese riglyne om hulle betrokkenheid te verbeter. Dit word voorgestel dat bogenoemde document versprei word aan die ouers van die deelnemers aan die studie.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectParental behaviouren_ZA
dc.subjectSporten_ZA
dc.subjectPerceptionsen_ZA
dc.subjectCompetitive adolescent swimmersen_ZA
dc.subjectPressureen_ZA
dc.subjectEnjoymenten_ZA
dc.subjectParental involvementen_ZA
dc.subjectParental influencesen_ZA
dc.subjectSwimmingen_ZA
dc.subjectParent and teenageren_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.A. (Human Movement Studies.))--University of the Free State, 2006en_ZA
dc.titleParental involvement in sport: perceptions of competitive adolescent swimmersen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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