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dc.contributor.advisorRaath, A. W. G.
dc.contributor.authorDe Freitas, Shaun Alberto
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-27T13:55:02Z
dc.date.available2015-10-27T13:55:02Z
dc.date.issued2014-06
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1444
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Accompanying early seventeenth-century Europe were challenges related to the limitation of political power, civic participation in public affairs and the attainment of the public interest. Absolute rule and the absence of the individual as well as of the collective in political activity required urgent attention. The republican quest towards a much-needed rearrangement of the guardians and executors of political power as well as a more inclusive role to be played by the individual and the collective was accompanied by a view on the law as something beyond merely law enforced by the governing authorities. At the time, England and Scotland served as a scholarly hub where constitutionalism was vigorously addressed. The seventeenth-century Scottish theorist Samuel Rutherford contributed towards the formulation of a constitutional model not only suited to the context of his time but which also has overlapping value for contemporary theories on constitutionalism. Rutherford accomplishes this with special emphasis firstly on an understanding of the concept of republicanism, an understanding that was coupled with a rich legacy spanning many centuries and including Ancient Hebrew, Classical Greek and Roman, Patristic, Medieval, Canonist and Scholastic thinking. Secondly, Rutherford argues for the importance of the Rule of Law idea, together with the idea of the covenant. The encompassing framework within which a constitutional model was to be sought was against the background of the view that the law transcends the laws applied by the civil authorities, mere positivism and pragmatism. Rutherford reiterates the Ciceronian idea that the law is something more than Niccolό Machiavelli and Jean Bodin’s command of the ruler. Thirdly, Rutherford’s constitutionalist thinking also includes valuable insights pertaining to the protection and maintenance of religion and of the conscience. This Rutherford does in reaction to the oppression of religion by the authorities and a more enlightened development in seventeenth-century Britain by which the emphasis was placed on the ‘inner light’ within man, and which was supported by influential theorists such as Grotius, John Milton and John Locke. Emanating from this study are also enduring insights related to constitutionalism such as the importance of social contractarianism; the centrality and superiority of natural or moral law; the mutual relationship between rights and duties; every individual’s participation and duty towards a common good, which transcends mere self-interest; the ruler’s accountability primarily before the moral law; the office of the ruling power and its universalist and immutable normative substance; and activism against physical and psychological oppression.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Die eerste deel van sewentiende-eeuse Europa is gekenmerk deur uitdagings wat verband gehou het met die beperking van politieke mag, burgerlike deelname in sake van openbare belang en ’n strewe daarna om die belangstelling van die publiek te verkry. Absolute gesag en die afwesigheid van die individu asook van die kollektiewe in politieke aktiwiteit het dringende aandag geverg. Die republikeinse soeke na ’n dringend-nodige herrangskikking van die bewakers en uitoefenaars van politieke mag, asook die behoefte aan ’n meer inklusiewe rol deur die individu en die kollektiewe is vergesel deur ’n uitkyk op die reg as iets wyer as die blote wette wat deur die regerende gesag afgedwing is. Engeland en Skotland het op daardie tydstip gedien as ’n spilpunt van geleerdheid waar konstitusionalisme kragdadig aangespreek is. Die sewentiende-eeuse Skotse teoretikus, Samuel Rutherford, het ’n bydrae gelewer tot die formulering van ’n konstitusionele model wat nie net gepas was vir die konteks van sy tyd nie maar wat ook oorvleuelende waarde het rakende hedendaagse teorieë oor konstitusionalisme. Rutherford het dit vermag deur eerstens spesiale klem te plaas op ’n insig in die konsep van republikanisme, ’n konsep wat gekoppel was aan ’n ryke nalatenskap wat oor baie eeue gestrek het en Antieke Hebreeus, Klassieke Grieks en Romeins, asook Patristiese, Middeleeuse, Kanoniese en Skolastiese denke ingesluit het. Tweedens het Rutherford argumente geformuleer vir die belangrikheid van die oppermagtigheid van die reg, in samehang met die gedagte van die verbond. Die allesomvattende raamwerk waarbinne ’n konstitusionele model aangetref behoort te word, is beskou teen die agtergrond van die uitgangspunt dat die reg die wette wat deur die burgerlike owerhede toegepas word, positivisme en pragmatisme transendeer. Rutherford het die Ciceroniaanse gedagte herbevestig dat die reg veel meer omvat as Niccolό Machiavelli en Jean Bodin se bevel van die regeerder. Rutherford se konstitusionalistiese denke het ook waardevolle insigte ingesluit betreffende die beskerming en handhawing van godsdiens en die gewete. Rutherford het dit gedoen in reaksie op die onderdrukking van godsdiensvryheid deur die owerhede en ’n meer verligte ontwikkeling in sewentiende-eeuse Brittanje waardeur die klem geplaas is op die ‘innerlike lig’ van die mens, en wat deur invloedryke teoretici soos Grotius, John Milton en John Locke ondersteun is. Voortspruitend uit hierdie studie vloei ook blywende insigte in verband met konstitusionalisme soos: die belang van sosiale kontraktualisme, die sentrale en oppermagtige posisie wat deur die natuurreg of morele reg beklee word, die onderlinge verhouding tussen regte en pligte; elke individu se bydrae tot en plig teenoor ’n gemeenskaplike welsyn wat blote eiebelang transendeer; die heerser se verantwoordbaarheid voor die morele reg; die amp van die bewindhebbende mag en die universele en onveranderbare normatiewe wese daarvan; en aktivisme teenoor fisiese en psigologiese onderdrukking.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectSamuel Rutherforden_ZA
dc.subjectLex, Rexen_ZA
dc.subjectRepublicanismen_ZA
dc.subjectConstitutionalismen_ZA
dc.subjectConstitutional lawen_ZA
dc.subjectRule of Lawen_ZA
dc.subjectSamuel Rutherford and the lawen_ZA
dc.subjectSamuel Rutherford and liberty of conscienceen_ZA
dc.subjectSamuel Rutherford and republicanismen_ZA
dc.subjectSamuel Rutherford and constitutionalismen_ZA
dc.subjectSamuel Rutherford -- 1600?-1666 -- Political and social viewsen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (LL.D. (Constitutional Law and Philosophy of Law))--University of the Free State, 2014en_ZA
dc.titleLaw and federal-republicanism: Samuel Rutherford’s quest for a constitutional modelen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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