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dc.contributor.advisorBester, C. L.
dc.contributor.authorBoshoff, Estelle
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-19T10:12:45Z
dc.date.available2015-10-19T10:12:45Z
dc.date.issued2009-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1394
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Unethical behaviour is a general tendency in the current work situation where there appears to be a decrease in ethical behaviour on a national as well as international level within organisations. Unethical behaviour including bribery, nepotism, fraud and corruption are also found in South African organisations. Unethical behaviour can have financial consequences and market related risks for organisations, and can lead to negative media exposure. Apart from the negative consequences which unethical behaviour holds for organisations, unethical behaviour also leads to low morale under employees and a high employee turnover. The negative consequences which unethical behaviour holds for organisations, as well as the South African economy, necessitates a focus on factors which may have an influence on ethical behaviour, and specifically work ethics. Current research supports a person-situation-interaction approach to ethical decision-making where both individual and situational factors influence the decisions that the individual makes. Regarding individual factors, researchers indicate that the individual’s ethical decision-making philosophy influences the manner in which ethical problems are managed and behavioral decisions are made. It is apparent from the literature that different authors identified different philosophical approaches regarding ethical decision-making. There is however no model in existence which integrates these approaches. Furthermore, it also became apparent from the literature that there is a need within the South African context for the development of a reliable and valid work ethics questionnaire which determines individuals’ ethical decision-making approaches as well as their level of ethical behaviour. The purpose of this study was therefore twofold: Firstly a holistic philosophical model of ethical decision-making was developed. The model integrated the following six philosophical approaches regarding ethical decision-making, namely the rule-bound approach; the consequensialistic approach; the rule-bound consequensialistic approach; the virtue approach; the social justice approach and relativism. Secondly a work ethics questionnaire (Work Convictions Questionnaire) (WCQ), which was administered upon a sample of five hundred and twenty four respondents, was developed. Item analysis and selection of items for the final questionnaire was performed by use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The following conclusions regarding objective 1 and objective 2 of the WCQ were reached from the statistical analysis. Objective 1 (Scale A): The determination of the individual’s level of ethical behaviour Scale A possesses a satisfactory content reliability. Furthermore, it is apparent that with regards to the validity (construct validity), the construct, level of ethical behaviour is well defined. Objective 2 (Scale B): Identification of the philosophical approaches that are followed during ethical decision-making Regarding the six philosophical approaches regarding ethical decisionmaking identified from the literature, one dimensionality was primarily suggested for the approaches. It is apparent from the statistical analyses that the six approaches each exhibit a satisfactory content reliability. Furthermore, it is apparent that with regards to the validity (construct validity), the concept philosophical approaches regarding ethical decision-making (six-factor structure) is well defined and that the six factor structure exhibits a good fit and a stable measuring model. Hereafter all two hundred and fifteen items were subjected to exploratory factor analysis without suggestion of any previously identified factor structure. Thereafter confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the factor structure. Three factors emerged, namely the rule bound, consequensialistic and discretionary approaches. The three approaches each exhibited a satisfactory content reliability. Furthermore, it is apparent that with regards to the validity (construct validity), the concept philosophical approaches regarding ethical decision-making (three-factor structure) is well defined and that the three-factor structure exhibits a good fit and stable measurement model. Therefore the six-factor structure or the alternative three-factor structure can be utilised. The important value of the study stems from the fact that it addresses the need for a reliable and valid work ethics questionnaire for the South African context. This measuring instrument not only provides an indication of the individual’s level of ethical behaviour, but also the approach followed during ethical decision-making.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Onetiese gedrag is ‘n algemene tendens in die huidige werksituasie waar daar ‘n verval in etiese gedrag op nasionale sowel as internasionale vlak binne organisasies blyk te wees. Onetiese gedrag waaronder omkopery, nepotisme, bedrog en korrupsie word dan ook algemeen in Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies aangetref. Onetiese gedrag kan finansiële gevolge en markverwante risiko’s vir organisasies inhou en negatiewe mediablootstelling tot gevolg hê. Behalwe die negatiewe gevolge wat onetiese gedrag vir organisasies inhou, het onetiese gedrag ook ‘n lae moreel onder werknemers en ’n hoë werknemeromset tot gevolg. Die negatiewe gevolge wat onetiese gedrag vir organisasies sowel as die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie inhou, noodsaak ‘n fokus op faktore wat ‘n invloed op etiese gedrag, en spesifiek werksetiek, mag uitoefen. Huidige navorsing ondersteun ‘n persoon-situasie-interaksiebenadering tot etiese besluitneming waar beide individuele en situasionele faktore die besluite wat die individu neem, beïnvloed. Betreffende individuele faktore wys navorsers daarop dat die individu se etiese besluitnemingsfilosofie die wyse waarvolgens etiese probleme hanteer word en die gedragsbesluite wat geneem word, beïnvloed. Vanuit die literatuur het dit geblyk dat verskillende outeurs verskillende filosofiese benaderings rakende etiese besluitneming geïdentifiseer het. Daar bestaan egter nie ‘n model wat hierdie benaderings integreer nie. Verder het dit ook vanuit die literatuur geblyk dat daar binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks ‘n behoefte bestaan aan die ontwikkeling van ‘n betroubare en geldige werksetiekvraelys wat individue se etiese besluitnemingsbenadering sowel as vlak van etiese gedrag, bepaal. Derhalwe was die doel van hierdie studie tweërlei: Eerstens is ‘n holistiese filosofiese model van etiese besluitneming ontwikkel. Die model het die volgende ses filosofiese benaderings rakende etiese besluitneming geïntegreer, naamlik die reëlgebonde benadering; die konsekwensialistiese benadering; die reëlgebonde-konsekwensialistiese benadering; die deuggebaseerde benadering; die sosiale regverdigheidsbenadering en relativisme. Tweedens is ‘n werksetiekvraelys (Werksoortuigingsvraelys) (WOV) ontwikkel wat op ‘n steekproef van vyfhonderd-vier-en-twintig proefpersone afgeneem is. Itemontleding en seleksie van items vir die finale vraelys is uitgevoer deur van verkennende en bevestigende faktorontleding gebruik te maak. Vanuit die statistiese ontledings is daar tot die volgende gevolgtrekkings gekom betreffende doelstelling 1 en doelstelling 2 van die WOV. Doelstelling 1 (Skaal A): Die bepaling van die individu se vlak van etiese gedrag Skaal A beskik oor ‘n bevredigende inhoudsbetroubaarheid. Verder blyk dit dat wat die geldigheid betref (konstrukgeldigheid), die konstruk, vlak van etiese gedrag goed gedefinieer word. Doelstelling 2 (Skaal B): Identifisering van die filosofiese benaderings wat tydens etiese besluitneming gevolg word - Betreffende die ses filosofiese benaderings rakende etiese besluitneming wat vanuit die literatuur geïdentifiseer is, is daar eerstens eendimensionaliteit vir die benaderings veronderstel. Vanuit die statistiese ontledings blyk dit dat die ses benaderings elk ‘n bevredigende inhoudsbetroubaarheid toon. Verder blyk dit dat wat die geldigheid betref (konstrukgeldigheid), die konsep filosofiese benaderings rakende etiese besluitneming (ses- faktorstruktuur) goed gedefinieer word en dat die ses-faktorstruktuur ‘n goeie passing en ‘n bestendige metingsmodel toon. - Vervolgens is al tweehonderd-en-vyftien items aan verkennende faktorontleding onderwerp sonder dat enige vooraf geïdentifiseerde faktorstruktuur veronderstel is. Daarna is bevestigende faktorontleding op die nuwe faktorstruktuur toegepas. Drie faktore het na vore gekom, naamlik die reëlgebonde, konsekwensialistiese en diskresionêre benaderings. Die drie benaderings het elk ‘n bevredigende inhoudsbetroubaarheid getoon. Verder blyk dit dat wat die geldigheid betref (konstrukgeldigheid), die konsep filosofiese benaderings rakende etiese besluitneming (drie-faktorstruktuur) goed gedefinieer word en dat die drie-faktorstruktuur ‘n goeie passing en ‘n bestendige metingsmodel toon. Daar kan derhalwe met die ses-faktorstruktuur of met die alternatiewe drie- faktorstruktuur gewerk word. Die belangrike waarde van die studie blyk vanuit die feit dat dit die behoefte aan ‘n betroubare en geldige werksetiekvraelys vir die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks aangespreek het. Hierdie meetinstrument verskaf nie net ‘n aanduiding van die individu se vlak van etiese gedrag nie, maar ook die benadering wat tydens etiese besluitneming gevolg word.af
dc.language.isoafaf
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D (Industrial Psychology))--University of the Free State, 2009en_ZA
dc.subjectBusiness ethics -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectDecision making -- Moral and ethical aspectsen_ZA
dc.subjectOrganizational behavior -- Moral and ethical aspectsen_ZA
dc.subjectEthical problems -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectBusiness ethics -- Philosophyen_ZA
dc.subjectWork ethics questionnaireen_ZA
dc.subjectRule-bound consequensialistic approachen_ZA
dc.subjectConsequensialistic approachen_ZA
dc.subjectRule-bound approachen_ZA
dc.subjectVirtue approachen_ZA
dc.subjectSocial justice approachen_ZA
dc.subjectExploratory and confirmatory factor analysisen_ZA
dc.titleDie ontwikkeling van 'n werksetiekvraelys gebaseer op 'n holistiese filosofiese model van etiese besluitnemingaf
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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