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dc.contributor.advisorNeser, F. W. C.
dc.contributor.advisorDu Toit, J. E. J.
dc.contributor.advisorOdenya, W. O.
dc.contributor.authorNthimo, A. M.
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-01T08:56:52Z
dc.date.available2015-10-01T08:56:52Z
dc.date.copyright2004-11
dc.date.issued2004-11
dc.date.submitted2004-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1316
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Studies were made on growth, carcass and egg performance as well as mortality of the Lesotho native chickens compared to the South African native (Potchefstroom Koekoek, Ovambo, Lebowa-Venda and Naked Neck) and two exotic lines, namely the New Hampshire a nd Rhode Island Red from 3-days old to 70 weeks old (moulting). Chickens were raised in two batches with an interval of four weeks between the two batches: from 3-day old to ten and six in Batches 1 and 2, respectively. Chickens were reared in Bloemfontein (UFS) under confinement, fed ad libitum with broiler starter mash for the first four weeks where after grower mash was fed to the chickens up to the age of ten weeks old. From this stage until the end of the laying phase, they were all fed yellow maize and managed semi-intensively in Lesotho at the NULFOA. The study was done in two phases, namely the pre-laying and laying phases. With the exception of feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was conducted in the first 35 days of the study, all measurements of growth and egg performance traits were recorded weekly while mortality was recorded daily. Carcass yield analysis was done at 70 weeks of age. Presentation of the growth data was done in three stages, namely 3-day, 26-week and 70-week weights, which are considered crucial in a chicken’s life span. The means of the Lesotho line were significantly different (p<0.05) from other lines in all growth traits, namely 3-day weight, 26-week weight, average daily gain (ADG) and average weekly gain (AWG) except for the FCR and hen weight at 70 weeks old. With the exception of the New Hampshire and Potchefstroom Koekoek, no significant differences (p>0.05) were observed between the Lesotho hen weight and other lines. The Ovambo had the highest body weight and avera ge daily gain of all the native populations at 26-weeks old, while the Potchefstroom Koekoek had the highest 70-week weight. Feed conversion ratios ranged between 3.2±1.9 for the New Hampshire to 3.9±1.2 for Naked Necks in Batch 1, and 3.3±1.2 for New Hampshire to 4.2±0.9 for the Lesotho line in Batch 2. All differences between the lines for FCR were highly significant (p<0.01). All the lines commenced their egg production between the 25th to 26th weeks of age and there were no significant differences (p> 0.05) between the ages at first lay among all the lines. Egg production was found to differ significantly (p<0.05) among the different lines. The average number of eggs laid per week per hen and egg weight of the Lesotho hens was 1.2 and 48.5g, respectively. The New Hampshire had a significantly (p<0.05) higher dressed weight than other lines (1903.0±190.8g) while the Naked Neck had the lowest (1297.7±133.0g). Bone and head weight were not significantly different (p>0.05) among the different lines. The Lesotho line had the highest overall mortality (89%) of all the lines. The lowest mortality (27%) was found in the Potchefstroom Koekoek. A probable reason for high mortalities in the Lesotho could be ascribed to the result of inbreeding within the line. Although the Lesotho hens exhibited the lowest growth at the onset of laying (1113.8±71.6g), they eventually compensated and ended being large (2047.5±65.6g) at 70-weeks old. The Lesotho hen, like the New Hampshire and Potchefstroom Koekoek showed potential for being a good dual-purpose breed, since it was able to maintain a high body weight at the end of laying. Therefore the breed has an advantage of fetching a higher market price at the end of laying. The constraint is that of their low growth in the earlier part of their life span. This can be improved through the implementation of planned breeding programs.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Vergelykende studies is gedoen t.o.v. groei, karkas- en eierprestasie, sowel as mortaliteit by die Lesotho inheemse hoenders teenoor die Suid-Afrikaanse inheemse rasse (Potchefstroom Koekoek, Ovambo, Lebowa Venda en Kaalnek) en twee eksotiese lyne, nl. die New Hampshire en Rhode Island Red vanaf drie dae tot 70-weke ouderdom (verveertyd). Kuikens is op hok gehou in twee afsonderlike groepe, met ‘n tussenpose van vier weke tussen die twee groepe: Groep 1 vanaf drie dae tot 10 weke oud en Groep 2 vanaf 3 dae tot 6 weke. Die grootmaakproses het by die UV te Bloemfontein geskied waar slaghoenderbeginmeel gedurende die eerste vier weke ad libitum aan die kuikens gevoer is, waarna slaghoendermeel gevoer is tot op ouderdom tien en ses weke in Groepe 1 en 2 onderskeidelik. Vanaf hierdie stadium tot aan die einde van die lê -fase is almal geelmielies gevoer onder semi-intensiewe bestuur by NULFOA in Lesotho. Die studie is in twee fases gedoen, nl. die voor-lê- en lê -fase. Met die uitsondering van voeromsetverhouding (FCR) wat in die eerste 35 dae van die studie onderneem is, is alle metings van groei en eierprestasie -eienskappe weekliks aangeteken , terwyl mortaliteit daagliks aangeteken is. Karkasopbrengsontleding is op ouderdom 70-weke gedoen. Aanbieding van die groeidata is in drie fases gedoen, nl. 3- dae, 26-weke en 70-weke gewigte, wat as deurslaggewend in ‘n hoender se lewensduur beskou word. Die gemiddelde van die Lesotho-lyn het betekenisvol verskil (p0.05) waargeneem tussen die gewig van die Lesotho-hen en dié van ander lyne nie. Die Ovambo het die hoogste liggaamsgewig en gemiddelde daaglikse toename van al die inheemse populasies op 26- weke ouderdom gehad, terwyl die Potchefstroom Koekoek die hoogste 70-weke gewig gehad het. Voeromsetverhoudings het tussen 3.2 ± 1.9 vir die New Hampshire en 3.9±1.2 vir Kaalnekke in Groep 1 gevarieer, en tussen 3.3 ± 1.2 vir new Hampshire en 4.2±0.9 vir die Lesotho-lyn in Groep 2. Alle verskille tussen die lyne vir FCR was hoogs betekenisvol (p0.05) tussen die ouderdom van aanvang van lê by al die lyne nie. Eierproduksie het wel betekenisvol (p 0.05) tussen die verskillende lyne nie. Die Lesotho-lyn het die hoogste algehele mortaliteit (89%) van al die lyne gehad. Die laagste mortaliteit (27%) is by die Potchefstroom Koekoek gevind. Die hoë mortaliteit by die Lesotho kan moontlik aan inteling binne die lyn toegeskryf word. Alhoewel die Lesotho-henne die laagste groei met die aanvang van lê getoon het, (1113.8±71.6g), het hulle uiteindelik gekompenseer en groot geëindig (2047.5±65.6g) op 70-weke ouderdom. Die Lesotho-hen, soos die new Hampshire en Potchefstroom Koekoek het potensiaal getoon as 'n goeie dubbeldoelras, aangesien dit 'n hoë liggaamsgewig aan die einde van die lê-periode kon handhaaf. Die ras het dus die voordeel dat dit 'n hoër markprys na lê -tyd kan behaal. 'n Beperking is die lae groei vroeër in hul lewensduur. Dit kan verbeter word deur die implementering van beplande teelprogramme.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectChickens -- Lesotho -- Geneticsen_ZA
dc.subjectChickens -- Breeding -- Lesothoen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc.Agric. (Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences))--University of the Free State, 2004en_ZA
dc.titleThe phenotypic characterization of native Lesotho chickensen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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