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dc.contributor.advisorKotzé, C. J.
dc.contributor.authorLiguori, Tersia
dc.date.accessioned2015-09-22T09:52:22Z
dc.date.available2015-09-22T09:52:22Z
dc.date.issued2007-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1272
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The lack of job opportunities for school leavers has a major impact on their future aspirations and adult development, affecting their emotional and social behaviour. The global phenomena to exclude a great number of school leavers to be absorbed in the country’s economic growth foster feelings of detachment, lack of aspirations and motivation with no aim or future prospects. The purpose of the research is to investigate the effect of lack of opportunities through the use of selected information, as well as an overview on the theories on work according to Erikson, Maslow and Kohlberg. Erikson’s psychosocial theory takes into consideration factors that impact on the social and cultural components of an individual’s developmental experiences. Maslow, the founder of humanistic psychology in America holds society responsible for the fulfillment of human needs while Kohlberg’s Cognitive Developmental Approach to psychology advocated by some that emphasise feelings and emotions and the better understanding of the self in terms of evaluation of oneself and one’s relations with other. Adolescent Morality describes the nature of general rights such as individual rights, human dignity, equality, contractual agreement and mutual obligations. Moral behaviour is motivated by a concern for the welfare of the larger community and a desire for community respect. During adolescence sub-stages of explorations are identified regarding work and career expectations indicating a strong relationship between selfconcept and career choice. Differences in social class might influence adolescents to have different expectations. The reality of their choices depends on the degree of relation between personal characteristics and the requirements and the demands of the preferred career, the current and projected employment supply and demand status, and importantly, the adequacy of the educational plan by which this would be implemented. A variety of factors may influence the reality of career choice. Inadequate information to youths, especially in rural areas might reflect a comparatively low level of aspiration. To most people to work is to perform a task in exchange for remuneration in order to take care of themselves, families and society. In a developing country like South Africa, formal employment could be limited and people often have to involve themselves in diverse informal activities to earn a living. A historic overview indicated four successive phases stretching over centuries. The “Information Processing” stage has become information intensive, instead of labour intensive; the employee’s usefulness now lies in valueadded knowledge and skills. Various factors could influence adolescents choosing a job or embarking on a career including personal attributes, self-esteem, identity formation and scholastic and academic performance. Ethnic and/or racial background might be a major factor in the choice of a job or a career. Cultural beliefs and political decisions regarding equity, affirmative action and black empowerment equity influence the choice and future aspirations of school leavers. The media plays an active part in perceptions and the aspirations of school leavers. Both government and private sector benefit form school leavers and should collaborate towards creating opportunities for school leavers. The lack of job opportunities in the Eastern Free State is a reality that causes emotional and social problems, which should be urgently addressed. Over the last three years, an increasing number of learners have written national matric examinations but fewer have passed and fewer learners are accepted into tertiary institutions. Many more remain at home because they cannot afford the high tuition fees. The perennial problem of thousands of failed matric learners, unable to do anything meaningful with their lives is increasing. A baseline study indicated that in the Free State only 17% of all youths who were eligible for employment were in fact employed. Many were involved in criminal activities and a survey by the Human Research Council revealed that two thirds of those wanting to work simply could not find a job. An empirical research consisting of quantitative questionnaires to school leavers and qualitative interviews with principals and teachers was conducted to determine the influence of the lack of job opportunities the social and emotional development of adolescents and the impact thereof on society. The investigation also addressed possibilities to enable learners to cope with the given situation. The self-structured questionnaire was compiled to target Grade 9 learners, who after passing the senior phase could leave school and Grade 12 learners who wrote the national matric examinations in October 2006. A total of 214 school leavers from ten schools in the Eastern Free State participated. The age of these learners ranged between 15 and 19 years. Learners provided valuable input concerning biographical information about themselves, their parents and employment as well as career expectations and their perceptions on employment prospects in South Africa. An alarming 49.4% of school leavers felt that job opportunities in the Eastern Free State were not good and 56.4% felt either unsure or not positive about job opportunities in South Africa. Interviews conducted with principals and educators indicated that school leavers experienced more problems than in the past. Principals and educators gave reasons for possible causes of emotional and social problems amongst school leavers. Participants indicated that the lack of discipline, inadequate schooling, the lack of skills and insufficient preparation and guidance and support regarding possible careers, were the main causes contributing to uncertainty and frustration. Financial problems and limited support and involvement from parents, also played a major role in future aspirations. The information from the respondents and interviewees was analyzed and the findings were used to assist in making recommendations towards y improving the position of school leavers and assisting in their inclusion in the labour market. It is important that both the government and private sector should realize that in order to prevent the increase in social problems, urgent steps should be taken to address the lack of opportunities for school leavers.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Gedurende die laaste paar jaar het ‘n toenemende aantal leerders die nasionale matriekeksamen geskryf, maar minder leerders het geslaag en is toegelaat tot tersiêre instellings. Baie meer leerders bly tuis omdat hulle nie die hoë fooie kan bekostig nie. Die toenemende probleem van duisende matrikulante wat nie geslaag het nie en niks betekenisvol met hulle lewens verrig nie, word groter. ‘n Agtergrondstudie het aangedui dat slegs 17% van alle jeugdiges wat vir werk geskik is, wel werk het. Talle was betrokke by kriminele aktiwiteite en ‘n ondersoek deur die “Human Research Council” het aangedui dat twee derdes van diegene wat wil werk, geen werk kon vind nie. ‘n Empiriese ondersoek bestaande uit ‘n kwantitatiewe vraelys aan skoolverlaters en kwalitatiewe onderhoude met skoolhoofde en onderwysers is onderneem om te bepaal of die tekort aan werksgeleenthede ‘n negatiewe invloed het op die sosiale en emosionele ontwikkeling van jeugdiges. Die studie het verder die impak van die tekort aan werksgeleenthede op die sameleweing asook ondersoek wat moontlik gedoen kan word om leerders toe te rus om dit te kan hanteer. Die selfopgestelde vraelys was daarop gemik om inligting te verkry van leerders in Graad 9 en Graad 12 (wat die 2006 nasionale matriekeksamen geskryf het). Graad 9 leerders was ingeluit omdat hulle ook die skool kan verlaat aan die einde van die Senior Fase. ‘n Totaal van 214 skoolverlaters van tien skole in die Oos-Vrystaat was deel van hierdie ondersoek. Die ouderdomme van leerders was tussen 15 en 19 jaar. Waardevolle biografiese inligtigting is verkry aangaande leerders, hulle ouers en werk, asook hul loopbaanverwagtinge en persepsies oor werksgeleenthede in Suid-Afrika. ‘n Onrusbarende 49.4% skoolverlaters het gevoel dat werksgeleenthede in die Oos-Vrystaat nie goed was nie en 56.4% was óf onseker óf het gevoel dat die geleentheid om werk te kry in Suid-Afrika, nie goed was nie. Onderhoude met skoolhoofde en onderwysers het aangedui dat skoolverlaters tans meer probleme ervaar as in die verlede. Inligting is voorsien oor moontlike oorsake wat kon lei tot emosionele en sosiale probleme onder skoolverlaters. Deelnemers het aangedui dat die tekort aan dissipline, onvoldoende skoolopleiding, die tekort aan bekwaamhede, ontoereikende voorbereiding, leiding en ondersteuning aangaande moontlike loopbane, grootliks bydra tot onsekerheid en frustrasies onder skoolverlaters. Finansiële probleme en onvoldoende leiding en ondersteuning van ouers dra ook by tot die tekort aan toekomsaspirasies. Die inligting verkry van respondente en van onderhoude met skoolhoofde en onderwysers, is ontleed en die bevindinge is gebruik om aanbevelings te maak aangaande moontlike oplossings om die posisie van skoolverlaters te verbeter, asook bystand tot insluiting in die arbeidmark. Dit is uiters belangrik dat beide die regering en privaatsektor sal moet besef dat om die toename in sosiale probleme in die gemeenskap te voorkom, dringende stappe gedoen sal moet word om die tekort aan werksgeleenthede vir skoolverlaters aan te spreeaf
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectHigh school students -- Employment -- South Africa -- Eastern Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectOccupations -- South Africa -- Eastern Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Ed. (Psychology of Education))--University of the Free State, 2007en_ZA
dc.subjectSocial developmenten_ZA
dc.subjectEmploymenten_ZA
dc.subjectPrivate sector involvementen_ZA
dc.subjectRural influencesen_ZA
dc.subjectSchool leaversen_ZA
dc.subjectInterviewsen_ZA
dc.subjectEmotional problemsen_ZA
dc.subjectJob opportunitiesen_ZA
dc.subjectSchoolingen_ZA
dc.subjectSocial problemsen_ZA
dc.subjectUnemployment -- Psychological aspectsen_ZA
dc.titleThe effect of insufficent job opportunities on school leavers in the Eastern Free Stateen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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