Translating terms for reconciliation in the Toussian New Testament (Burkina Faso): Bible translation as a means for social change
This thesis examines the problem of inadequate terminology in Toussian, a language of Burkina Faso, for translating the biblical concept of reconciliation. Through a detailed analysis of the biblical terms for reconciliation and in-depth ethnographic analysis of the traditional social structures for reconciliation in Toussian culture, appropriate strategies are proposed for translating the biblical concept of reconciliation in Toussian. When the biblical texts relating to reconciliation are meaningfully translated in Toussian, it is then possible to propose a model for Scripture Engagement involving reconciliation as a means for social transformation. In this way, the Bible translator can be an agent for social change. The subject of reconciliation has become more and more important because of various conflicts that undermine the world. In addition, it has become an issue in many African communities such as the Toussian people, living in the south of Burkina Faso, which need to understand well this concept of reconciliation for real social change. For its theoretical framework, this research utilises the Structuration Theory of the sociologist Anthony Giddens. In translation studies, both Descriptive Translation Studies and the Functionalist Approaches emphasise the importance of taking into account the social context in which translation occurs. The recent sociological turn in Translation Studies emphasises the role of the translator as an active social agent in given social contexts, which is not always recognised or noticed by other social agents. Structuration Theory provides a framework for examining the Bible translation process in a holistic way and a more realistic way. It also highlights the fact that the social and the individual are in constant interaction. In addition, an understanding of the sociology of religion provides an important framework for considering the religious life of the Toussian people and the religious context of Bible translation. Toussian society is a headless society with leadership distributed among the “land chief,” the “village chief” and the blacksmiths. It has both matrilineal and patrilineal lines; the matrilineal line determines inheritance of family property and also plays an important role in the solving of conflicts among clans. Reconciliation of social conflict involves restorative justice or punitive justice as determined by the nature of the offense. Conflict resolution mechanisms involve an oral dimension (the rhetoric of mediators and negotiators), a ritual dimension (music, song, dance), and a traditional dimension (the founding myths of the community). Toussian culture is predominantly non-literate with a strong oral culture; Biblical performance criticism thus provides a method or set of approaches for proposing a model for the implementation of oral Scripture engagement involving biblical texts with the theme of reconciliation in the Toussian area. The biblical concepts of reconciliation are examined through a study of the notions in the Old Testament and in the New Testament. In the Old Testament, there are various mechanisms for reconciliation, both between humans and between humans and the deity. In fact, there is no specific lexical term for reconciliation as in the New Testament. The Greek terms relating to reconciliation that are found in the New Testament appear in the Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, but the meaning is not fully developed as in the New Testament. In the New Testament, by contrast, the notions of reconciliation are expressed through a number of words. This study focuses on the differences between horizontal reconciliation (between humans) and vertical reconciliation (between humans and God) with special attention to an analysis of 2 Corinthians 5.18-21. This study established that the meaning of καταλλαγη (reconciliation) when it refers to the vertical dimension involves the idea that God is ending enmity with humankind. The analysis of the terms for reconciliation in the New Testament demonstrates that the translation already made in Toussian translates well the idea of horizontal reconciliation but Toussian lacks lexical terms to render the concept of vertical reconciliation. The Toussian translators used expressions which have only a connotation of union for both kinds of reconciliation. It is proposed to use expressions relating to the ending of enmity or hostility to express the concept of vertical reconciliation in which there is the idea of a change of the situation. On the basis of the new translation, a model for the implementation of reconciliation within Toussian society is proposed alongside the implementation of oral performance of biblical texts and songs utilizing the proposed reconciliation terminology to effect social change and cohesion.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Maluleke, Mbhanyele Jameson (University of the Free State, 2017-02)The Vatsonga are an ethnic group composed of a large number of clans found in South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Swaziland. Xitsonga (the language of the Vatsonga) is spoken in all four of these countries. In South ...
Krige, Magdalena (University of the Free State, 2014)English: Translating poetry from French to Afrikaans is not really a new concept in Afrikaans literature. The beginning of the twentieth century (around 1919 / 1920) already saw the publication of translations by Jan ...
Naudé, J. A. (Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, 2009)English: The first complete Bible translation in Afrikaans was published in 1933. This article describes and analyses this translation. Given the new developments in translation studies, one should not evaluate a translation ...