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dc.contributor.advisorPhimister, Ian
dc.contributor.advisorMseba, Admire
dc.contributor.advisorNyamunda, Tinashe
dc.contributor.authorGwande, Victor Muchineripi
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-28T12:13:43Z
dc.date.available2019-11-28T12:13:43Z
dc.date.issued2018-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/10348
dc.descriptionThis thesis is embargoed until December 2021.
dc.description.abstractEnglish: This thesis examines the relationship between organised secondary industry, the state and other economic interest groups (farmers, miners and commerce) over industrialisation in Southern Rhodesia (Colonial Zimbabwe) between 1939 and 1979. Using diverse and fresh archival material that includes minutes and reports of industrialists’ congresses, industrial journals, business newspapers, legislative debates, government and commissions of enquiries’ reports, the thesis demonstrates that this relationship was uneven, irregular and often shifted depending on time and context. The thesis also concludes that the great expansion and diversification of industry which took place was, among other factors, attributable to the efforts of private entrepreneurs. Industrialists galvanised and formed representative organisations, starting with the Salisbury and Bulawayo Manufacturers’ Association (c.1920) which then evolved into the Salisbury and Bulawayo Chambers of Industries (c.1930s), Association of Chambers of Industries of Rhodesia (1941-1949), the Federation of Rhodesia Industries (1949-1957), Association of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Industries (1957-1964) and the Association of Rhodesian Industries (1964-1979). These organisations engaged the state in pursuit of industrial development. Often, industrialists associations’ requests, demands, and suggestions were opposed, if not dismissed, by the government and other economic interest groups and yet, remarkably, secondary industries expanded. By privileging the voice of industrialists which hitherto has been neglected in the historiography, the thesis moves beyond the existing scholarship’s emphasis on the actions of the state in the industrialisation of Colonial Zimbabwe through planning, regulation and establishment of major industries of national importance. While this existing analysis is correct, it is incomplete. Between 1939 and 1965, farmers, miners and commerce, with the state’s support, believed in the supremacy of the primary exporting industries of agriculture and mining in propelling the economy of Southern Rhodesia. The state’s bias towards the primary exporting industries of mining and agriculture manifested itself in its adoption of imperial preference by which it opened the colony for imports of manufactured goods from other parts of the British Empire in return for market opportunities for the primary products. It also sacrificed industrial interests in negotiating trade agreements, thus, depriving secondary industry of tariff protection. Further, the state routinely accepted advice which labelled the manufacturing sector as of secondary importance to mining and agriculture. The result was government policy based on the idea that industrial development was a field of private enterprise, whose growth ought to be voluntary. Industries were left to their own devices and to develop as opportunity occurred. The exception to this policy was during the crisis periods of the Second World War and UDI. Faced with the shortages of imported manufactured goods in the domestic market induced by the interruptions in international trade because of the war, the Southern Rhodesian government realised the imperative of developing local industries. The nascent industrialists seized the opportunity and prevailed upon the state to adopt an active policy to foster industrial growth. At the instigation and lobbying of industrialists, the government agreed, but no sooner had the war ended than the state retreated from its temporary support of local industries, reiterating its avowed policy of leaving industry to its own devices. This policy continued in the post-war years and throughout the period of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963). The other exception was during UDI. Determined to survive under sanctions, the government and organised industry cooperated and collaborated to keep the wheels of industry in particular, and the economy in general, going. In an effort to preserve foreign exchange in the face of sanctions, the government introduced import control measures, which had the consequential effect of encouraging the establishment of import substitution industries which were able to take advantage of the protection it afforded.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Hierdie tesis ondersoek die verhouding tussen georganiseerde sekondêre bedryf, die staat, en ander ekonomiese belangegroepe (boere, myners, en handel) aangaande industrialisering in Suid Rhodesia (koloniale Zimbabwe) tussen 1939 en 1979. Deur gebruik te maak van diverse en vars argivale materiaal, soos notules en verslae van nyweraars kongresse, nywerheidsjoernale, besigheidskoerante, wetgewende debatte, regerings- en kommissies van ondersoek-verslae, demonstreer hierdie tesis dat hierdie verhouding ongelyk, onreëlmatig, en het gereeld verskuif afhangend van die tyd en konteks. Hierdie tesis kom ook tot die gevolgtrekking dat die groot uitbreiding en diversifisering van die nywerheidsektor was, te same met ander faktore, aan die pogings van privaat entrepreneurs toegeskryf. Nyweraars het verteenwoordigende organisasies gevorm en aangespoor, met die Salisbury and Bulawayo Manufacturers’ Association (c.1920) as die beginpunt, wat later ontwikkel het na die Salisbury and Bulawayo Chambers of Industries (c.1930s), Association of Chambers of Industries of Rhodesia (1941-1949), the FRI (1949-1957), ARNI (1957-1964) en die ARnI (1964-1979). Hierdie organisasies het met die staat betrokke geraak in hul strewe na nywerheidsontwikkeling. Dikwels het nywerheidsassosiasies se versoeke, eise, en voorstelle teengestaan, en soms van die hand gewys, deur die regering en ander ekonomiese belangegroepe, en tog, merkwaardig genoeg, het sekondêre nywerhede uitgebrei. Deur eie stemme van nyweraars wat tot dus ver historiografies afgeskeep is te verhef, beweeg hierdie tesis verder as die bestaande werke se beklemtoning van die aksies van die staat in die industrialisering van koloniale Zimbabwe deur beplanning, regulasies, en die vestiging van groot nywerhede van nasionale belang. Terwyl hierdie bestaande analise korrek is, is dit wel onvolledig. Tussen 1939 en 1965 het boere, myners, en handel, met staatsondersteuning, geglo in die oppergesag van die primêre uitvoer nywerhede of landbou en mynbou in die bevordering van die ekonomie van Suid Rhodesia. Die staat se vooroordeel teenoor die primêre uitvoer nywerhede of mynbou en landbou het gemanifesteer in die aanvaarding van imperiale voorkeur waardeur dit die kolonie oop gemaak het vir die invoer van vervaardigde goedere van ander dele van die Britse Ryk in ruil vir die markgeleentheid vir die primêre produkte. Dit het ook nywerheidsbelange opgeoffer in die onderhandelde handelsoorkoms, en sodoende sekondêre nywerheid ontneem van tariefbeskerming. Verder het die staat gereeld advies aanvaar wat die vervaardigingsektor as tweederangs tot die mynbou en landbou ge-etiketteer het. Die resultaat was `n inerte regeringsbeleid wat op die idee dat nywerheidsontwikkeling `n veld vir privaat ondernemings was, wie se groei vrywillig moes wees, gebaseer. Nywerhede was oorgelaat aan hulle lot, en om te ontwikkel soos geleenthede opgekom het. Die uitsondering tot die beleid was tydens die krisis-periode van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en UDI. Terwyl die Suid Rhodesiese regering gekonfronteer was met tekorte van ingevoerde vervaardigde goedere in die plaaslike mark, wat veroorsaak was deur die onderbrekings in internasionale handel a.g.v. die oorlog, het dit die noodsaaklikheid van ontwikkeling van die plaaslike nywerhede besef. Die ontluikende nyweraars het die geleentheid aangegryp en het die staat forseer om `n aktiewe beleid te aanvaar om nywerheidsgroei te bevorder. Op aandrang van nyweraars, het die regering ingestem, maar kort na die oorlog het die staat hierdie tydelike hulp aan plaaslike nywerhede teruggetrek, en sodoende het die regering sy duidelike beleid om nywerheid oor te laat aan sy eie lot beklemtoon. Hierdie beleid het in die na-oorlogse jare en regdeur die periode van the Federasie van Rhodesia en Nyasaland (1953-1963) voortgegaan. Die ander uitsondering was gedurende UDI. Bepaal om onder sanksies te oorleef, het die regering en die georganiseerde bedryf saamgewerk en saamgewerk om veral die wiele van die bedryf te hou en die ekonomie in die algemeen te gaan. In 'n poging om buitelandse valuta in die gesig te hou van sanksies, het die regering invoermaatreëlmaatreëls ingestel, wat die gevolglike effek gehad het om die vestiging van invoervervangingsbedrywe aan te moedig wat voordeel kon trek uit die beskerming wat dit gebied het.en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Centre for Africa Studies))--University of the Free State, 2018en_ZA
dc.subjectOrganised secondary industryen_ZA
dc.subjectStateen_ZA
dc.subjectEconomic interest groupsen_ZA
dc.subjectIndustrialisationen_ZA
dc.subjectSouthern Rhodesiaen_ZA
dc.titleOrganised secondary industry and the state in Zimbabwe, 1939-1979en_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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