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dc.contributor.advisorVan Niekerk, J. A.
dc.contributor.advisorVan Rooyen, C. J.
dc.contributor.advisorD’Haese, L.
dc.contributor.authorSwanepoel, Jan Willem
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-25T07:07:15Z
dc.date.available2018-01-25T07:07:15Z
dc.date.issued2017-08
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/7709
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Exceptional rural-urban migration took place into the Cape Town Metropolitan area over the past years and is continuing, with the bulk of these migrants residing in the informal settlement areas. The rate of urbanisation is however not concurrent with the rate of economic growth and as a result, the rates of urban poverty is worsening. Food insecurity is a direct result of urban poverty, causing urban populations to depend on urban food production. Currently, measurements for food security are inconsistent and it is unclear whether urban agriculture systems are sustainable and whether it contributes to the general household food security, albeit it is generally accepted that households engaged in urban agriculture should experience an improved food security status. Empirical research regarding the actual contribution of urban agriculture to household food security may be limited as well as lacking in consistency. Against this setting, it was important to analyse urban household food security in the informal settlement areas of the Cape Town Metropole in South Africa, with focus on the contribution of urban agriculture towards alleviating food insecurity. The objectives to determine the required outcomes were: • The measurement of the level of urban household food security of urban farmers and non-farmers; • Factors that affect urban household food insecurity were identified; • The contribution of urban agriculture to food security was determined; • An optimal grouping of observations by utilising the identified critical factors that address household food insecurity were identified; and • Policy recommendations were made for government on the alleviation of urban food security by using the outcomes of the above analysis. The above objectives were achieved by firstly consulting literature to anchor the application into theory and report on past research conducted on the problem. The global and South African trends of food security and urban agriculture were placed in perspective together with the measuring of livelihood in an urban context. Data collection took place in six informal settlement areas of the Cape Town Metropole, included both farming households and non-farming households. Very high levels of food insecurity were observed in all dimensions of food security in the informal settlement areas of the Cape Town Metropole. When looking at access to food, the household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) indicated that 78% of households are severely food insecure and just more than 50% reported an income level above the US$ 2 per capita per day. Households reported hunger especially during June and July, and November and December respectively. This is an indication of food unavailability during these months. Significant differences were observed between the areas in terms of the level of food security, but no significant difference in food security between farming and non-farming households was observed. The households surveyed consisted of 99 male headed and 121 female-headed households with more males involved in urban agriculture. The average household comprised of 4.3 members. The factor analysis showed that the expenditure component accounts for 20.4% of variance and is characterised by factors relating to expenditure on food. The expenditure component is comprised by the share of food expenditure on income, the total value of food consumed and the household diet diversity score. The groups of food purchased (diversity) are dependent on the amount of purchase power available. Other components identified were the socio-economic indicators component, food security indicators component, urban farming component and geographical and market components. The results presented in the study indicated that households engaged in urban agriculture are benefiting in terms of diet diversity, income and accessibility due to their involvement in this activity. However, there was no indication of a significant positive contribution of urban agriculture towards food security. Three homogeneous clusters were characterised into a severely food insecure cluster, a moderately food insecure cluster and food secure cluster. Different food security measurement indicators, demographic indicators, livelihood indicators relating to income, production factors and the level of education were included in the analysis. These clusters of homogenous groups with similar proportions for different characteristics may in turn serve as invaluable information for decision makers to identify destitute areas, make focused decisions and take specific supporting action. Policy recommendations were made to enhance the effectivity of the current policy and contribute to the main goal of the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy i.e. to ensure that all the dimensions of food security are met. This include the availability, accessibility and affordability of safe and nutritional food at national and household levels.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Buitengewone voortdurende migrasie vanaf Wes-Kaapse en ander landelike gebiede na die Kaapstadse metropolitaanse gebiede het gedurende die afgelope paar jare plaasgevind. Die grootste aantal migrante woon in informele nedersettingsareas. Die verstedelikingskoers hou nie tred met die tempo van ekonomiese groei nie, en het verdere verslegtende stedelike armoede tot gevolg. Voedselonsekerheid is 'n direkte gevolg van stedelike armoede aangesien stedelike bevolkings afhanklik is van stedelike voedselproduksie. Tans is die maatstawwe vir voedselsekerheid onbestendig en is dit onduidelik of stedelike landbousisteme volhoubaar is, en of dit wel bydra tot die algemene huishoudelike voedselsekerheid. Alhoewel dit algemeen aanvaar word dat huishoudings wat by stedelike landbou betrokke is 'n hoër vlak van voedselsekerheid ervaar as die wat nie daarby betrokke is nie, kan empiriese navorsing aangaande nie die werklike bydrae van stedelike landbou tot huishoudelike voedselsekerheid bevestig nie, so-ook is daar ‘n gebrek aan die konsekwentheid daarvan. Gevolglik was dit belangrik om die stedelike huishoudelike voedselsekerheid in die informele nedersettingsareas van die Kaapstadse Metropool in Suid-Afrika te analiseer met verwysing na die bydrae wat stedelike landbou lewer om voedselonsekerheid te verlig. Die volgende doelwitte om die vereiste uitkomste te bepaal is geformuleer:  Om die vlak van stedelike voedselsekerheid van stedelike boere en nie-boere te meet;  Om die faktore wat stedelike voedselsekerheid in die huishouding raak, te bepaal;  Om die bydra wat stedelike landbou tot voedselsekerheid lewer te bepaal;  Om 'n optimale groepering van waarnemings te vind, deur gebruik te maak van die geïdentifiseerde kritiese faktore wat huishoudelike voedselonsekerheid aanspreek; asook  Om beleidsaanbevelings oor die verligting van stedelike voedselsekerheid te maak aan die regering deur die uitkomste van bogenoemde analise te gebruik. Bogenoemde doelwitte is bereik deur om eerstens literatuur te raadpleeg en sodoende die tesis se teorie te anker en verslag te doen oor vorige navorsing wat op die betrokke probleem gedoen is. Die globale en Suid-Afrikaanse neigings ten opsigte van voedselsekerheid en stedelike landbou is in konteks geplaas, tesame met die bekrywing van bestaansreg in 'n stedelike konteks. Data-insameling het plaasgevind in ses informele nedersettingsgebiede van die Kaapstadse Metropool, bestaande uit huishoudings wat betrokke is in boerdery aktiwiteite asook huishoudings wat nie in enige boerdery akwtiwiteite betrokke is nie. Baie hoë vlakke van voedselonsekerheid is in alle dimensies van voedselsekerheid in die informele nedersettingsareas van die Kaapstadse Metropool waargeneem. Met betrekking tot toegang tot voedsel het die huishoudelike voedselonsekerheidskaal aangedui dat 78% van huishoudings erg voedselonseker is en net meer as 50% het aangedui dat hulle 'n inkomste bo US$ 2 per persoon per dag verdien. Huishoudings het aangedui dat honger voorkom veral gedurende Junie en Julie, sowel as November en Desember. Dit is 'n aanduiding van die gebrek aan beskikbaarheid van voedsel. Daar is beduidende verskille tussen die informele nedersettingsareas waargeneem ten opsigte van die vlak van voedselsekerheid, maar geen beduidende verskille in voedselsekerheid tussen huishoudings betrokke in boerdery en die wat nie betrokke is in boerdery nie. Die datastel bestaan uit 220 huishoudings. Van hierdie huishoudings het 99 mans as hoofde en 121 huishoudings vroulike hoofde. Meer manlike hoofde is betrokke by stedelike landbou. Die gemiddelde grootte van huishoudings het uit 4,3 lede per huishouding bestaan. Volgens die faktorontleding het die uitgawe komponent die grootste proporsie opgemaak van faktore wat ‘n invloed het op voedselsekerheid, naamlik 20,4%. Hierdie komponent word gekenmerk deur faktore wat verband hou met uitgawes aangegaan ten opsigte van voedsel. Die uitgawe komponent bestaan uit die proporsie van voedseluitgawes ten opsigte van inkomste, die totale waarde van voedselverbruik en die huishouding se dieet diversiteitstelling. Die verskeidenheid voedselgroepe (diversiteit) wat gekoop is, is afhanklik van die hoeveelheid koopkrag wat beskikbaar is. Ander komponente wat geïdentifiseer is, was die komponent vir sosio-ekonomiese faktore, die komponent vir voedselsekerheidsfaktore, die stedelike boerderykomponent en geografiese en markkomponent. Die resultate van die studie toon aan dat huishoudings wat in stedelike landbou betrokke is voordeel trek met betrekking tot dieet diversiteit, inkomste en toeganklikheid as gevolg van hul betrokkenheid by hierdie aktiwiteit. Daar is egter geen aanduiding van 'n beduidende positiewe bydrae van stedelike landbou tot voedselsekerheid nie. Drie homogene groeperings ten opsigte van voedselsekerheidstatus is ontwikkel naamlik: ‘n ernstige voedselonseker groepering, 'n matige voedselonseker groepering en ‘n voedselseker groepering. Verskillende meetinstrumente vir voedselsekerheid, demografiese aanwysers, bestaansreg indikatore met betrekking tot inkomste, produksiefaktore en die vlak van onderwys is in die analise ingesluit. Hierdie homogene groepe met soortgelyke waardes vir verskillende faktore kan op sy beurt as onskatbare inligting dien vir besluitnemers om kritieke areas of huishoudings te identifiseer, gefokusde besluite te neem en spesifieke ondersteunende aksie te neem. Beleidsaanbevelings word gevolglik gemaak om die effektiwiteit van die huidige beleid te verbeter en by te dra tot die hoofdoel van die Nasionale Voedsel- en Voedingsekerheidsbeleid, naamlik om te verseker dat al die dimensies van voedselsekuriteit in ag geneem word. Dit sluit die beskikbaarheid, toeganklikheid en bekostigbaarheid van veilige voedsel met voldoende voedingswaarde op nasionale en huishoudelike vlakke in.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectFood securityen_ZA
dc.subjectFood insecurityen_ZA
dc.subjectUrban agricultureen_ZA
dc.subjectUrban farmingen_ZA
dc.subjectSocio-economic indicatorsen_ZA
dc.subjectFood security indicatorsen_ZA
dc.subjectLivelihooden_ZA
dc.subjectHungeren_ZA
dc.subjectFood security -- South Africa -- Western Cape -- Cape Townen_ZA
dc.subjectUrban agriculture -- South Africa -- Western Cape -- Cape Townen_ZA
dc.subjectHouseholds -- South Africa -- Western Cape -- Cape Townen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. Centre for Sustainable Agriculture))--University of the Free State, 2017en_ZA
dc.titleAnalysing urban household food security in the Cape Town Metropole of South Africa, with reference to the role of urban agricultureen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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