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dc.contributor.advisorSchwallbach, L. M. J.
dc.contributor.advisorGreyling, J. P. C.
dc.contributor.advisorLoskutoff, N. M.
dc.contributor.authorStander, Henriette
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-31T08:44:46Z
dc.date.available2017-01-31T08:44:46Z
dc.date.issued2004-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/5464
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Eight captive male African lions aged 1 to 4 years (Panthera leo) from Bothaville district (n=6) and Johannesburg Zoo (n=2), as well as 1 lioness from the Bloemfontein Zoo were used during this study. The 8 male lions were chemically immobilized using Zoletil® (Virbac,SA). External sexual organ characteristics were determined by palpation. The length and the width of the testis were recorded. Results showed that 4 lions had testis with a firm texture, while the other 4 animals had either 1 or both testis flaccid. Well developed cauda epididymis were detected in 6 of the lions. The mean length of the testis was 5.3 ± 0.5 cm and the width 3.1± 0.39 cm. Semen was succesfully collected from 6 chemically immobilized male lions by means of electroejaculation. The semen was evaluated after collection for volume, pH, overall motility, linear forward progression, concentration and structural morphology using standard procedures. A mean of 5.28 ± 0.6 ml of semen with a whitish color was collected from the 6 animals. The mean pH of the samples was 7.1± 0.05. A mean of 90 ±1.6% motile sperm with a linear progression of 4 was recorded for the semen samples collected. The semen samples had a mean concentration of 101 x106 ± 3.1 sperm/ml and 65.7 ± 2.14% structurally normal sperm. Five different treatments were used to cryopreserve the collected lion semen. Biladyl®, a Tris-citrate buffered extender, was used in combination with either DMSO or Glycerol at inclusion levels of 4% and 8%. After adding the cryoprotectant, the extended semen was loaded into 0.25ml straws (n=12) and equilibrated for 2 hours at 4°C. After equilibration, the straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour (±-70°C) and stored in a liquid nitrogen flask at -196°. After 5 months of cryopreservation, 2 straws per animal, per cryopreservation treatment were thawed by one of 3 methods: i) room temperature (22°C) for 2 minutes, ii) 36°C for 2 minutes (waterbath) and iii) 50° for 8 seconds (waterbath). The semen was evaluated post-thawing for overall motility and forward progression. No post-thaw motility or forward progression was recorded in the semen samples thawed without a cryoprotectant (control). Treatments containig Glycerol or DMSO at 4% and 8% recorded a significant higher motility and forward progression. A mean post-thaw motility of 18±2.4 % was recorded for semen (cryopreserved in DMSO and Glycerol) thawed at three different temperatures. There were no significant differences between the 4 treatments containing cryoprotectants or between the 3 thawing methods used. A heterologous in vitro fertilization assay was set up to evaluate the fertilizing capacity of the lion sperm cells post-thaw. Semen from the 4 cryoprotectant treatments (4 and 8% DMSO and Glycerol) were thawed at 36°C for 2 minutes and used to fertilize in vitro matured zona pellucida free bovine oocytes. The results showed a fertilization rate of 25% and 33% for lion semen cryopreserved in 4% Glycerol and DMSO respectively. The sperm cryopreserved in 8% Glycerol showed fertilizing rates of 0% and sperm cryopreserved in 8% DMSO a rate of 13% fertlization. Although the fertilzation rate obtained during this study are relatively low, the cryopreservation protocols using 4% Glycerol and DMSO hold promise for in vitro fertilizatrion programs for the African lion (Panthera leo) using in homologous oocytes. A faecal oestradiol- 17β enzyme immunoassay for the African lioness was developed and tested. Faecal samples were collected from one adult lioness on a weekly basis over a period of 3 months. The assay was validated for the African lion and the oestradiol -17β level present in the faeces was determined. The oestradiol - 17β levels ranged between 0.01ng/ml to 3.8ng/ml. An interval of 43 days between oestradiol -17β peaks was determined. A representative oestrogen profile could not be set up due to limited faecal samples From the results presented in this study it could be concluded that lion semen can be successfully cryopreserved in Biladyl® cryodiluent containing either 4% or 8% Glycerol or DMSO. The results of the post-thaw heterologous IVF assay suggest that the 4% Glycerol or DMSO inclusion in the semen extender for cryopreservation, results in better fertilization rates than at concentrations of 8% glycerol or DMSO.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Tydens hierdie studie is 8 manlike Afrika leeus en 1 vroulike Afrika leeu gebruik. Die leeus was in aanhouding in die Johannesburg en Bloemfontein dieretuine asook op ‘n plaas in die Bothaville distrik. Die 8 manlike leeus is chemies verdoof deur middel van Zoletil®. Na verdowing is die tekstuur van die testis en die cauda epididymis ondersoek. Die lengte en breedte van die testis is bepaal. Ferm testis het by 4 manlike diere en goed ontwikkelde cauda epididimis by 6 van die 8 manlike diere voorgekom. Die gemiddelde lengte en breedte van die testis was 5.3± 0.5 cm en 3.1±0.39 cm onderskeidelik. Semen is suksesvol van 6 manlike leeus (onder verdowing) gekollekteer deur middel van elektro-ejakulasie. ‘n Standaard prosedure is gebruik om semen te evalueer vir volume, pH, konsentrasie, strukturele morfologie, beweging en tempo van lineêre beweging. ‘n Gemiddeld van 5.3 ±0.6 ml semen met ‘n pH van 7.0 is per dier gekollekteer. ‘n Gemiddeld van 90 ±1.6 % beweeglike sperme met ‘n lineêre progressie van 4 was teenwoordig in die semen monsters. Die gemiddelde konsentrasie van leeu semen gekollekteer was 101 x 106 ±3.1 sperme/ml met 65.7 ± 2.1 % morfologies normale sperme Vyf verskillende behandelings is getoets tydens die bevriesing van leeu semen. Biladyl® is gebruik as semenverdunningmiddel. Die oorblywende 4 behandelings het bestaan uit 'n kombinasie van Biladyl® met 1 van die volgende as kriobeskermings middel: 4% en 8% gliserol en DMSO byvoegings onderskeidelik. Die verdunde semen is in 0.25ml strooitjies opgetrek. Na ‘n ekwilibrasie tydperk van 2 uur by 4°C, is die semen in vloeibare stikstof damp gevries en in vloeibare stikstof geberg. Na ‘n periode van 5 maande van bevriesing, is 2 strooitjies/dier/behandeling ontdooi by een van 3 temperature, i) 36°C (waterbad) vir 2 minute ii) kamertemperatuur en iii) 50°(waterbad) vir 8 sekondes. Die semen is ge-evalueer vir beweeglikheid na ontdooiing. Geen beweging van sperme is waargeneem by semen gevries in slegs Biladyl® sonder gliserol/DMSO. ‘n Gemiddelde beweging van 18.0 ±2.4% na ontdooiing het voorgekom by leeu semen gevries in 4% en 8% gliserol en DMSO. Geen betekenisvolle verskille het voorgekom tussen behandeling vir leeu semen bevriesing of tussen verskillende metodes vir die ontdooi van leeusemen. Die bevrugtingspotensiaal van die bevrore semen in 4% en 8% gliserol of DMSO is bepaal deur ‘n heterologiese in vitro bevrugtings toets. Leeu semen gevries in 4% of 8% gliserol en DMSO is ontdooi by 36°C vir 2 minute en gebruik om bees zona pellucida- vrye eierselle te bevrug. Resultate het bevrugtingspeile van 25% en 33% getoon vir semen gevries in 4% gliserol en DMSO onderskeidelik. Semen gevries in 8% gliserol en DMSO het gelei tot 0% en 13% bevrugting. ‘n Fekale oestradiol-17β ensiem immuun- toets is gevalideer vir die vroulike Afrika leeu. Mismonsters is op ‘n weeklikse basis oor ‘n tydperk van 3 maande van ‘n vroulike leeu gekollekteer. Die toets is gevalideer en die vlakke van oestradiol-17β teenwoordig in die mismonsters is bepaal. Oestradiol-17β vlakke het gewissel tussen 0.01ng/ml en 3.8ng/ml. ‘n Interval van 43 dae tussen oestradiol pieke het voorgekom. ‘n Verteenwoordigende hormoon profiel vir oestradiol uitgeskei in die mis van die vroulike leeu kon nie bepaal word nie vanweë ‘n tekort aan monsters. ‘ n Algemene gevolgtrekking kan gemaak word dat leeu semen suksesvol gevries kan word in Biladyl® semenpreserveermiddel wat gliserol en DMSO teen 4 en 8% onderskeidelik bevat. Die resultate van die heterologiese in vitro bevrugtings-toets het daarop gedui dat beter bevrugting plaasgevind het met leeu semen gevries in laer konsentrasies van gliserol en DMSO (4%) as met hoër insluitingspeile (8%).af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc.Agric. (Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences))--University of the Free State, 2004en_ZA
dc.subjectSpermatozoaen_ZA
dc.subjectLionessen_ZA
dc.subjectIn vitro maturationen_ZA
dc.subjectEndocrineen_ZA
dc.subjectGlycerolen_ZA
dc.subjectSteroid hormoneen_ZA
dc.subjectDMSOen_ZA
dc.subjectElectro-ejaculationen_ZA
dc.subjectAssisted Reproductive techniques (ART)en_ZA
dc.subjectBiladyl®en_ZA
dc.subjectZoletil®en_ZA
dc.subjectOestrusen_ZA
dc.subjectFeliden_ZA
dc.subjectOocytesen_ZA
dc.subjectTL-Hepesen_ZA
dc.subjectSperm banksen_ZA
dc.titleSperm cryopreservation, in vitro fertilization and faecal oestrogen enzyme immunoassay validation in the African lion (Panthera leo)en_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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