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dc.contributor.advisorFourie, F. C. v. N.
dc.contributor.advisorBotes, L. J. S.
dc.contributor.authorBooysen-Wolthers, Annelize
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-15T10:11:08Z
dc.date.available2015-10-15T10:11:08Z
dc.date.copyright2007-07-31
dc.date.issued2009-02-06
dc.date.submitted2007-07-31
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1385
dc.description.abstractEnglish: A search for reasons for the continued distinction of women as being the poorest of the poor, despite decades of development efforts, necessarily leads to a need for assessing the development status of women. In the case of South Africa, with its progressive policies on gender equality, such an assessment also serves as testimony to the success with which the integration of gender concerns into society has translated into the well-being of women. The development status of women in South Africa, and changes therein between 1996/98 and 2001/3, are central to this study. A gender-disaggregated adaptation of the Human Development Index (HDI) is developed and applied to South African national and provincial data to find differences in the levels and rates of change in the development status of women, compared with that of men. The development areas on which the HDI is based are examined to identify areas of particular weakness in terms of poor female development status. Measurement of the well-being of South African women is expanded by supplementing the HDI-based measures with the Gender Development Index (GDI), the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and two ‘power status’ indicators – the Decision-Making Index (DMI) and the Threshold Measure of Women’s Status (TMWS). Each of these indices offers but one perspective on the development status of women, leading to a fragmented picture. In order to provide a more broad-based, holistic picture of the well-being of women, it is proposed that a suite of indices be combined into a measurement framework, called the Women’s Development Status Profile (WDSP). This evaluation of the well-being of women from a number of perspectives makes for a more balanced assessment. The findings of this study can be summarised as follows: • Between 1996 and 2001 the development status of women in South Africa declined on a national level, in both absolute and (especially) relative terms. • This national trend was present throughout the nine provinces, albeit in varying degrees. • Women residing in provinces with a pre-existing weak absolute development status appear to be predisposed to also having a poor development status relative to men. • There was a distinct difference between the provinces in their absolute and relative development levels. Although provincial ranking patterns did not change much between 1996 and 2001, interprovincial performance gaps in female development status narrowed in both absolute and relative terms. • Whereas female economic activity was the principal area of weakness in 1996, female life expectancy emerged as a new area of concern by 2001 on an absolute level. Unemployment and illiteracy were the weakest areas in terms of relative female development. The rapid decline in female primary school gross enrolment ratios between the two years calls for further scrutiny. • A comparison of the five gendered indices confirmed the provincial ranking positions of Western Cape and Gauteng as the best performers in terms of the development status of women, with Limpopo as the weakest performer. Other provinces had less clear patterns in this regard. • The WDSP shows that women in the Western Cape and Gauteng enjoyed a relatively high female development status compared with other provinces, while the women of Limpopo had the weakest female development status for the years 1996/98 and 2001/03. • The distinction between development potential and actual development afforded by the WDSP, reveals that female development potential had made significant strides between 1996/8 and 2001/3, resulting in a more balanced Women’s Development Status Profile. The significant decline in the actual development status of women, in large part owing to a decline in life expectancy (and likely to be linked to the impact of HIV/AIDS), is nevertheless most disconcerting. This thesis offers a holistic and comprehensive measurement framework by means of which to assess the development status of women that will hopefully lead to appropriate policy steps and social changes to ensure sustained development.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: ‘n Soeke na redes vir die voortgesette onderskeiding van vroue as synde die armstes onder die armes, ongeag ontwikkelingspogings oor dekades, gee noodwendig aanleiding tot die behoefte om vroue se ontwikkelingstatus te evalueer. In die geval van Suid-Afrika met sy progressiewe geslagsgelykheidsbeleide, getuig sodanige evaluering ook van die sukses waarmee die integrasie van genderaangeleenthede in die samelewing neerslag gevind het in die welsyn van vroue. Die ontwikkelingstatus van vroue in Suid-Afrika, asook die veranderinge in hierdie verband tussen 1996/98 en 2001/3, staan sentraal in hierdie studie. ‘n Gender-gedisaggregeerde aanpassing van die Menslike Ontwikkelingsindeks (MOI) (Engels: Human Development Index – HDI) is ontwikkel en toegepas op Suid-Afrikaanse nasionale en provinsiale data ten einde verskille in die veranderingsvlakke en –koerse van vroue se ontwikkelingstatus vergeleke met dié van mans te bepaal. Die ontwikkelingsgebiede waarop die MOI gebaseer is, is ondersoek om areas wat besonder swak vaar ten opsigte van vroulike ontwikkelingstatus te identifiseer. Die meting van Suid-Afrikaanse vroue se welsyn is uitgebrei deur die MOI-gebaseerde meetinstrumente aan te vul met die Genderontwikkelingsindeks (Engels: Gender Development Index – GDI), die Genderbemagtigingsmaatstaf (Engels: Gender Empowerment Measure – GEM), asook met twee indikatore van ‘magstatus’ – die Besluitnemingsindeks (Engels: Decision-Making Index – DMI) en die Drempelmaatstaf van Vrouestatus (Engels: Threshold Measure of Women’s Status – TMWS). Elk van hierdie indekse bied slegs een perspektief op vroue se ontwikkelingstatus wat ‘n gefragmenteerde beeld verskaf. Ten einde ‘n breër-gebaseerde, holistiese beeld van vroue se welsyn te voorsien, word voorgestel dat ‘n stel indekse gekombineer word in ‘n metingsraamwerk, genaamd die Vroue-ontwikkelingstatusprofiel (Engels: Women’s Development Status Profile – WDSP). Hierdie evaluering van vroue se welsyn vanuit ‘n aantal perspektiewe dra by tot ‘n meer ewewigtige waardebepaling. Die bevindinge van die studie kan soos volg opgesom word: • Tussen 1996 en 2001 het die ontwikkelingstatus van Suid-Afrikaanse vroue op nasionale vlak afgeneem, in sowel absolute as (veral) relatiewe terme. • Hierdie nasionale tendens was teenwoordig dwarsoor die nege provinsies, ofskoon in wisselende mate. • Vroue woonagtig in provinsies met ‘n vooraf bestaande swak absolute ontwikkelingstatus blyk voorbestem te wees om ook ‘n swak ontwikkelingstatus relatief tot mans te hê. • Daar is ‘n kennelike verskil tussen die provinsies ten opsigte van hul absolute en relatiewe ontwikkelingsvlakke. Alhoewel provinsiale rangordepatrone nie noemenswaardig verander het tussen 1996 en 2001 nie, het inter-provinsiale prestasieleemtes ten opsigte van vroulike ontwikkelingstatus in sowel absolute as relatiewe terme gekrimp. • Onderwyl vroulike ekonomiese aktiwiteit in 1996 die vernaamste swak plek op ‘n absolute vlak was, het vroulike lewensverwagting te en 2001 te voorskyn getree as ‘n nuwe knelpunt. Werkloosheid en ongeletterdheid was die swakste punte in terme van relatiewe vroulike ontwikkeling. Die snelle afname in vroulike laerskool bruto inskrywingsratio’s tussen die twee jare verdien verdere ondersoek. • ‘n Vergelyking van die vyf gender-spesifieke indekse het die provinsiale rangordening van die Wes-Kaap en Gauteng bevestig as die beste presteerders in terme van die ontwikkelingstatus van vroue, met Limpopo as die swakste presteerder. In hierdie verband was daar by ander provinsies minder duidelike tendense te bespeur. • Die Vroue-ontwikkelingstatusprofiel (‘WDSP’) toon die relatiewe hoë ontwikkelingstatus van vroue in die Wes-Kaap en Gauteng vergeleke met ander provinsies, terwyl die vroue van Limpopo die swakste vroulike ontwikkelingstatus vir die jare 1996/98 en 2001/03 gehad het. • Die onderskeiding wat die Profiel (‘WDSP’) moontlik maak tussen ontwikkelingspotensiaal en werklike ontwikkeling onthul dat vroulike ontwikkelingspotensiaal betekenisvolle vordering gemaak het tussen 1996/8 en 2001/3, wat neerslag vind in ‘n meer ewewigtige Vroue-ontwikkelingstatusprofiel. Die beduidende afname in die werklike ontwikkelingstatus van vroue, grotendeels toe te skryf aan ‘n afname in lewensverwagting (en bes moontlik verbandhoudend met die impak van MIV/Vigs), is desnieteenstaande besonder onrusbarend. Hierdie proefskrif bied ‘n holistiese en omvattende metingsraamwerk vir die evaluering van die ontwikkelingstatus van vroue, wat hopelik sal lei tot toepaslike beleidstappe en sosiale veranderinge ten einde volhoubare ontwikkeling te verseker.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Economics))--University of the Free State, 2007en_ZA
dc.subjectWomen -- Economic conditionsen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen in development -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectQuality of life -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectDevelopment indicatorsen_ZA
dc.subjectGender-specific indicatorsen_ZA
dc.subjectFemale-specific human development indexen_ZA
dc.subjectMale-specific human development indexen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen and developmenten_ZA
dc.subjectSouth African gender mainstreamingen_ZA
dc.subjectWomen’s development status profileen_ZA
dc.titleThe development status of women in South Africa: patterns, progress and profilesen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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