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dc.contributor.advisorDu Plessis, E. D.
dc.contributor.authorHolland-Muter, Charmain D.
dc.contributor.otherGeorge, A. A.
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-31T07:21:43Z
dc.date.available2015-08-31T07:21:43Z
dc.date.issued2010-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1089
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Policing is universally seen as a stressful, demanding occupation with the occurrence of potentially violent and life threatening situations. This situation can clearly be identified in the South African context, due to the violent culture and shortage of means within the police service. South African police officers are constantly confronted with high levels of crime, transformation and a shortage of means. A high occurrence of work stress, post traumatic stress syndrome, burnout, the misuse of alcohol, suicide, as well as low levels of work satisfaction and work performance is common among police officers. International as well as South African research have shown that untreated stress in some individuals can lead to burnout, a condition that is seen as a health threat in many service rendering and people orientated occupations. In spite of this fact some police officers succeed in maintaining their psychological wellbeing. The concepts of hardiness and defence mechanisms are explored as protective factors against burnout, under the meta-theoretical framework of positive psychology. The aim of this research is to determine the occurrence of burnout among police members in high risk units, as well as to determine the role of hardiness and defence mechanisms. The research group consisted of 365 members of the police service from high risk units in the Free State Province, with an average age of 38.5 years. Specific sampling was used to include participants. Most of the participants were male (74.5%), married (64.9%) and on the level of inspector (49.9%). In addition to the biographical questionnaire that gave information about race, gender, mother tongue, age, marital status and the unit in which members work, three additional questionnaires were used. Burnout was measured by means of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Hardiness was measured with the Dispositional Resilience Scale – Hardiness, and defence mechanisms with the Defence Style Inventory. Descriptive statistics and alpha coefficients were calculated for all scales and subscales. Systematic regression analysing was performed to investigate the formulated research hypothesis. The results show that more than a third (37.3%) of participants experience high levels of depersonalisation. It is also seen that captains and inspectors experience higher levels of burn out, whilst the diving unit experience high levels of depersonalisation. Higher levels of burn out were also found in divorced individuals and those that are separated by bed and table. It seems that the burn out component of depersonalisation plays a large role in the general level of burn out in the participants. A specific correlation was found between emotional burn out and the use of unhealthy defence mechanisms. The hardiness component of commitment was present in all the scales of burn out (emotional drainage, depersonalisation, as well as personal achievement). There is also a correlation between control and personal achievement. In the light of some of the results the recommendation can be made that a higher level of hardiness and the use of maladaptive defence mechanisms must be included in the selection of high risk unit members. These founding’s can be used for the development and implementation of prevention – and intervention programs within the South African police service.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Polisiëring word universeel beskou as ‘n stresvolle, veeleisende beroep, wat lede blootstel aan potensieel gewelddadige en lewensbedreigende situasies. Hierdie situasie word in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks vererger, weens die land se gewelddadige kultuur en ‘n tekort aan hulpbronne in die polisiediens. Suid- Afrikaanse polisielede word deurlopend gekonfronteer met hoë misdaadsvlakke, transformasie en ‘n tekort aan hulpbronne. ‘n Hoë voorkoms van werkstres, posttraumatiese stressindroom, uitbranding, alkoholmisbruik, selfmoord, sowel as laer vlakke van werkstevredenheid en werksprestasie is dus nie vreemd onder polisielede nie. Internasionale en Suid-Afrikaanse navorsing het bewys dat onbehandelde stres by sommige individue tot uitbranding kan lei, ‘n toestand wat in baie dienslewerende en mensgeoriënteerde beroepe as ‘n gesondheidsrisiko beskou word. Ten spyte hiervan slaag sekere polisielede daarin om hulle psigologiese welstand te handhaaf. Die konsepte “gehardheid” en “verdedigingsmeganismes” word as beskermingsfaktore teenoor uitbranding, onder die metateoretiese raamwerk van die positiewe sielkunde, ondersoek. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsingstudie was om die voorkoms van uitbranding onder polisielede in hoë-risiko eenhede, sowel as die beskermende rolle van gehardheid en verdedigingsmeganismes te bepaal. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 365 polisielede vanuit hoë-risiko eenhede in die Vrystaat, met ‘n gemiddelde ouderdom van 38.5 jaar. Doelgerigte steekproeftrekking is gebruik om deelnemers in te sluit. Die meeste van die deelnemers was manlik (74.5%), getroud (64.9%) en met die rang van inspekteur (49.9%). Bykomend tot ‘n biografiese vraelys, wat inligting rakende ras, geslag, huistaal, ouderdom, huwelikstatus en die eenheid waarin lede werk, verskaf het, is drie verdere vraelyste gebruik. Uitbranding is gemeet deur middel van die Maslach Burnout Inventory. Gehardheid is gemeet met die Dispositional Resilience Scale – Hardiness en verdedigingsmeganismes met die Defence Style Inventory. Beskrywende statistiek en alfakoëffisiënte is bereken vir alle skale en subskale. Hiërargiese regressieontledings is uitgevoer om die geformuleerde navorsingshipotese te ondersoek. Die resultate toon dat meer as ‘n derde (37,3%) van die deelnemers aan die studie hoë vlakke van depersonalisasie ervaar. Dit blyk voorts dat kapteins en inspekteurs hoër vlakke van uitbranding toon, terwyl die duik-eenheid baie hoë vlakke van depersonalisasie toon. Daar is ook hoër vlakke van uitbranding by geskeide individue aangetref en by dié wat van bed en tafel geskei is. Dit kom voor asof die uitbrandingskomponent van depersonalisasie ‘n groot rol speel in die algehele vlak van uitbranding by die betrokke deelnemers. ‘n Beduidende verband is gevind tussen emosionele uitputting en die gebruik van ongesonde verdedigingsmeganismes. Die gehardheidskomponent van verbintenis was deel van al die skale van uitbranding (emosionele uitputting, depersonalisasie, sowel as persoonlike bereiking). Daar is ook ‘n verband tussen beheer en persoonlike bereiking gevind. Op grond van die resultate word die aanbeveling gemaak dat ‘n hoër vlak van gehardheid en die gebruik van gesonde verdedigingsmeganismes ingesluit moet word in die keuring van lede vir hoë-risiko eenhede. Hierdie bevindinge kan aangewend word vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van voorkomings- en intervensieprogramme binne die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens.af
dc.language.isoafaf
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectSouth African Police Serviceen_ZA
dc.subjectBurn out (Psychology)en_ZA
dc.subjectPolice -- Violence againsten_ZA
dc.subjectPolice -- Job stressen_ZA
dc.subjectJob stressen_ZA
dc.subjectPolice -- Mental healthen_ZA
dc.subjectDefence mechanismsen_ZA
dc.subjectProtective factorsen_ZA
dc.subjectPositive psychologyen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Soc.Sc. (Psychology))--University of the Free State, 2010en_ZA
dc.subjectHardinessen_ZA
dc.titleDie rol van geharde en verdedigingsmeganismes in uitbranding onder lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediensaf
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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