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Item Open AccessDie taak van maatskaplike werk ten opsigte van geestesgesondheid(University of the Free State, 1979-01) Meyer, Magdalena Magarietha; Botha, D.Afrikaans: Deur die eeue heen is daar op verskillende wyses hulp aan die psigo-sosiaal versteurde gelewer. Wanneer die hulpverlening aan die psigo-sosiaal versteurde persoon vanaf die vroegste tye in oënskou geneem word, kan ses tydperke onderskei word waartydens verskillende benaderings ten opsigte van die psigo-sosiaal versteurde persoon aangehang is en waartydens verskillende wyses van hulpverlening plaasgevind het. Hierdie tydperke is die animistiese, die naturalistiese, die teologiese, die hospitalisasie en afsonderings-, die rewolusionêre en die moderne tydperk. In die moderne tydperk is die fokus op gemeenskapsgeoriënteerde psigiatrie en op gemeenskapsgeestesgesondheid. Daar word 'n belangrike plek aan Maatskaplike Werk toegeken in die hedendaagse hulpverlening aan psigo-sosiaal versteurdes. Maatskaplike Werk as professie het 'n voorkomende taak op die geestesgesondheidsterrein. Hierdie taak omvat voorkoming in die wydste sin van die woord en impliseer nie slegs die voorkoming van veroorsakende faktore nie, maar die bevordering van geestesgesondheid in die algemeen. As sodanig gaan dit dus nie net om hulpverlening aan die psigo-sosiaal versteurde persoon nie, maar om die daarstelling van sowel 'n geestesgesonde gemeenskap as 'n gemeenskap wat geestesgesondheid bevorder. Drie interafhanklike komponente van voorkoming kan onderskei word, naamlik primêre, sekondêre en tersiêre voorkoming. Maatskaplike Werk kan primêr-voorkomend optree deur gemeenskapsgeestesgesondheidopvoeding; die daarstelling van voorkomingsfasiliteite en die ontwikkeling van gemeenskappe; en deur middel van maatskaplike groepwerk met hoë risiko-groepe. Hoewel die onmiddellike resultate van primêre voorkoming moeilik meetbaar is, lewer dit tog op die langtermyn positiewe resultate en behoort daarom as 'n saak van hoë prioriteit beskou te word. Wat sekondêre voorkoming aanbetref, bevorder drie werksterreine van Maatskaplike Werk, te wete, personeel maatskaplike werk, maatskaplike werk binne skoolverband en geneeskundige maatskaplike werk, die geleentheid vir maatskaplike werkers om op sekondêre vlak voorkomend op te tree. As gevolg van die tekort aan opgeleide maatskaplike werkers is dit egter nie altyd moontlik om aan alle persone met probleme, hulp te verleen voordat psigo-sosiale versteurdheid intree nie. Deur middel van krisisingryping en konsultasie kan meer persone in 'n korter tydperk bereik word en die probleem beperk word. Tersiêre voorkoming noodsaak dienslewering binne multi-professionele spanverband. Enkele instellings waar maatskaplike werkers in diens is en 'n bydrae lewer tot die tersiêre voorkoming van psigo-sosiale versteurdheid is onder andere die psigiatriese hospitaal die algemene hospitaal, buitepasiënt klinieke en gemeenskapsgeestesgesondheidsentrums. Die maatskaplike werker het 'n omvattende taak om te verrig as lid van die multiprofessionele span, wat die volgende insluit: Intensiewe hulp aan die psigo-sosiaal versteurde persoon met betrekking tot die hantering van psigo-sosiale versteurdheid; die lewering van rekonstruksiedienste ten einde voorbereiding te doen vir die persoon se herintegrasie in die gemeenskap en nasorgdienste waar-. tydens die maatskaplike werker die dienste van die multiprofessionele span afrond, die persoon spesifiek help met sy inskakeling en verdere behandeling en psigo-sosiale versteurdheid voorkom. As gevolg van die tekort aan opgeleide maatskaplike werkers, is dit nie altyd moontlik om doeltreffende dienste aan alle nasorgkliënte te lewer nie. Ten einde dié probleem te beperk, is dit belangrik dat die maatskaplike werker die hulpdienste waaronder byvoorbeeld die pleegsorgplasing van kliënte, klubs vir oudpasiënte, Beskutte Arbeid en halfweghuise in die gemeenskap, sal benut. Doeltreffende uitvoering van die taak van Maatskaplike Werk ten opsigte van voorkoming, op die geestesgesondheidsterrein is nie moontlik sonder die koordinasie van dienste, gesonde beleid en wetgewing, navorsing en opleiding nie. Dit is daarom ook die taak van Maatskaplike Werk om te koordineer; beleid en wetgewing daar te stel en uit te voer; navorsing te onderneem en.maatskaplike werkers op te lei vir dienslewering. Navorsing is noodsaaklik vir doeltreffende dienslewering en vir die voortbestaan van die professie. Omdat op die geestesgesondheidsterrein aan die mens in sy totaliteit aandag gegee word, is navorsing in multi-professionele verband noodsaaklik. Dit blyk egter dat navorsing op die geestesgesondheidsterrein deur die maatskaplike werker nog dikwels agterweë gelaat word. Wat opleiding betref, blyk dit dat die generies opgeleide maatskaplike werker toegerus is vir dienslewering op die geestesgesondheidsterrein. Spesialiteitsopleiding moet egter nie uit die oog verloor word nie en kan veral van waarde wees wanneer die maatskaplike werker In tersiêr-voorkomende diens lewer. Ten slotte kan gestel word dat Maatskaplike Werk in belangrike en byna onontbeerlike bydrae kan lewer ten opsigte van die hulpverlening aan die psigo-sosiaal versteurde persoon en die bevordering van geestesgesondheid in die algemeen. Item Open Access'n Handleiding vir die maatskaplike werker in privaatpraktyk(University of the Free State, 1996) Janse van Rensburg, Stephanie; Botha, D.English: In South Africa private practice in social work, is becoming an important alternative to traditional social work. The social worker in private practice functions independently and utilises business principles to accomplish social service goals. This study indicates that social workers become involved in private practice as it has economic advantages and certainly caters for specific needs, such as the important need for independent functioning, direct service rendering and the lowering of the incidence of occupational fatigue. The economic advantages of private practice goes hand in hand with the changes in South Africa, especially on the social services terrain, where services and personnel are being rationalised due to insufficient funds; thus an alternate source of income must be exploited and with private practice the social worker will remain available to the profession. As a result of the relative lack of knowledge of private practice in social services, the lack of training regarding private practice and the limitations of available guidelines, it is imperative that a manual be compiled for private practice in social work. It could enhance the quality of professional services by eliminating uncertainties, which in itself could improve the image of the profession. With this research study realistic and practical orientated information that could be included in a manual, was obtained. The following aspects, in sequence of priority should be *obstacles in private practice; *administration; *theoretical requirements for joining private practice; *contract with the client; *supporting system; *form of practice; *locality of private practice. A manual should be drawn up to the SAASWIPP, the SACSW and education institutions. The research study may serve as a framework for such a manual, which can be circulated for commentary. According to this study the manual should be given to all interested registered social workers in private and general practice as the decision to join private practice may be influenced by such a manual. The ideal would be if the social worker could come into contact with particular requirements of private practice on pre-graduate level, even if it is only on an information level. The choice of private practice could be part of a career development process. Private practice must be seen and handled as part of the profession and not as in opposition to general social work with exclusive privileges. Therefore the publication of information regarding private practice and the marketing of private practice are essential. This research study indicates that an extensive manual for social workers in private practice will facilitate the control and supervisory task of the SACSW and the SAASWIPP because uniform standards which will be set, will eliminate, to a high degree the uncertainties facing the new private practitioner. A manual for the social worker in private practice is a must and should be launched. Item Open Access'n Ekologiese perspektief op geweld teenoor vroue in saamwoon-en huweliksverhoudings(University of the Free State, 1999-11) Schoeman, Hendrik Pieters; Ferreira, S. B.English: A literature study, complemented by an empirical investigation during which both quantitative questionnaires and qualitative interviews with female victims of violence are utilised, is conducted to explore and describe violence against women in cohabiting and marital relationships from an ecological perspective, in order to tune in scientifically founded social work service rendering to the phenomenon. During the investigation, there is moved away from a linear approach to violence to a more comprehensive, holistic perspective, which brings about an assessment of social problems and needs in interactional terms, namely that violence is a result of maladjustment in the person and environmental relationship. The phenomenon is approached as a symptom of disfunctioning in the ecological system and as a result of the mutually influencing interactional processes that take place between the individual system and the ecological context. A variety of multifactoral, circular causal factors are identified by analysing four levels of the ecological system, namely the individual level, the family level, social structural level and the sociocultural level, but also of the levels' mutual influence upon one another. At the individual level, an analysis takes place of psychopathologies and characteristics associated with female victims and violent males. The ways in which their families of origin influence the concerned persons' current behaviour and purport regarding their situations are analysed, whilst the role of power in violent behaviour, the relation between the use of alcohol and chemical substances and violence and factors influencing female victims' decision making about the violent relationships, are also explored and described. Two circular theoretical frameworks, namely the structural approach of Salvador Minuchin and the multigenerational approach of Murray Bowen, are utilised for an analysis of family systems disfunctioning where violence against women in cohabiting and marital relationships occur. Due to the structural approach's emphasis on the disfunctioning of the family system where symptomatic behaviour occurs and its focus on the function of the symptomatic behaviour for the maintenance of a rigid, non-progressive family systems equilibrium, a meaningful structural exploration of violence prone family systems is made possible. The application of concepts from Bowen's theory on violence prone family systems, is especially useful for the exploration of the involved persons' emotional reactivity, triangulation both inside and outside of the family system and for the multigenerational recurrence of violent behaviour through various generations. During the analysis of social structural aspects that allegedly contribute to the establishment and maintenance of violence against women in cohabiting and marital relationships, the focus is on the influence of economic realities (illiteracy, unemployment and poverty) in the unique South African context. An analysis of service rendering initiatives, structures and professions involved in the prevention and treatment of the phenomenon and how female victims of violence experience these services and structures, is also done. Sexism, sex role stereotyping, norms regarding marriage and the family, the general acceptance of violence and myths related to violence against women in cohabiting and marital relationships, are contributing and maintaining factors focused on during an analysis of the sociocultural level of the ecological system. These factors possibly contribute to a elirnate/socio culture in which females are regarded as inferior to and as the property of men and where men are allowed to rule them, while the general acceptance of violence, gives rise to community desensitisation regarding the phenomenon. Due to the comprehensive nature of the ecological perspective, it not only serves as a directionindicator to the social work profession, but also to other professions and service rendering structures for continued research and for the pro- and reactive development and implementation of preventative and treatment programmes regarding the phenomenon. Item Open Access'n Gestaltspelterapiehulpprogram in maatskaplike werk vir juniorprimêre skoolkinders se emosionele intelligensie(University of the Free State, 2000-10) Blom, Barendina; Ferreira, S. B.English: The increasing emphasis world wide on the importance of emotional intelligence skills with regard to the adjustment of the child as a whole, as well as the increasing measure to which emotional problems are found to be occurring in children, serve as the main motivation for this study. This study focuses on the design and development of a gestalt play therapy aid programme that concentrates on the emotional intelligence of junior primary school children, by means of an exploratory and descriptive investigation. A programme such as this could possibly be aimed al providing scientifically based social work service rendering to junior primary school children. The first four phases of the intervention research design and development model are used as the research design. Intervention research is regarded as suitable because, as applied research, it focuses on the highlighting of, or the offering of possible solutions to, practical problems that normally include certain forms of intervention. A literature study is undertaken, during which a theoretical perspective on both emotional intelligence and gestalt therapy is offered. Furthermore, aspects influencing the emotional competence components of the junior primary school child’s emotional intelligence as well as play therapy techniques and activities from a gestalt theoretical perspective are brought into focus, and these may be used in an aid programme for the emotional intelligence of junior primary school children. Abilities and skills with regard to two personal emotional competence components, namely self-awareness and emotional self regulation, as well as two interpersonal emotional competence components, namely empathy and the regulation of emotions in others, are selected as emotional competence components of the emotional intelligence o f the junior primary school child. Although other therapeutic models may be applicable, the gestalt play therapeutic approach is used for the development of an aid programme for these components. The reason for this is that the aims and theoretical starting points of this approach are compatible with the skills which should be mastered by the junior primary school child with regard to the emotional competence components of his emotional intelligence. To complement the literature study, an empirical study has also been undertaken. This takes the form of a qualitative study, in which five participants are involved in a draft gestalt play therapy aid programme relating to their emotional intelligence, for one session per week, for a period o f twelve weeks. Throughout this programme, their experiences and reactions during the programme implementation are obtained by means of direct systematic and participatory observation. After the completion of the programme their parent(s) are involved in an informal interview, in order to verify the qualitative observations of the researcher during the study. The qualitative observations made by the researcher during the sessions are described in the form of case studies. The data which has been collected as a result of the case studies may then be analysed into categories and sub-categories that have been identified from the preceding literature study. As a result of the study the conclusion is reached that gestalt play therapy offers a suitable framework for an aid programme for the emotional intelligence o f junior primary school children. The aims of the gestalt play therapeutic approach are related to the skills that should be mastered by junior primary school children with regard to the personal emotional competence components of their emotional intelligence. The therapeutic process of gestalt play therapy and the variety o f play therapy techniques and activities that may be utilised from the gestalt theoretical perspective during each phase, offer a logical method by which the skills of junior primary school children may be integrated, with regard to the emotional competence components of their emotional intelligence. Recommendations with regard to the content and course o f the programme, as well as to training and further research, are formulated as a result o f the conclusions. Item Open Access'n Narratief-pastorale benadering in maatskaplike werk(University of the Free State, 2004-05) Moore, Anna Gesina; De Jager, H. J.; Janse van Rensburg, J.English: The arrival of the new millennium was greeted with great excitement, but the concerned feeling one gets when looking around, is one of negativity, pessimism, trauma and despair. Many people feel lost, accompanied by deep personal insecurities, pain, sadness and a feeling of total failure. The reason for this state of affairs has relevance to the current political and social structures because it offers no personal stability. It is thus deemed necessary that the dejectedness that got hold of many South Africans has to be transformed into faith and trust in the future. One may justly ask how does one learn to survive if one’s whole world has come to nothing. The search for answers to this cardinal question is the research field that has been investigated through an explorative and descriptive study. The investigation was done in four logical phases. The first phase consists of the planning of the research and serves as a determining summary giving an indication of why and how the investigation is planned and how the subject-matter will be presented. In the second phase attention is given to problem-formulation and the development of a theoretical framework for a pastoral-social layout. To achieve this, attention is given to the implications of anthropological paradigms, post modern narrative principles, and pastoral theological narrative principles. Furthermore the history of social work is explored with emphasis on the role that religion plays. In addition methods utilized in pastoral therapy to acknowledge the existence of a spiritual dimension has been attended to. In the third phase follows a discussion on a diaconiologically based narrative pastoral perspective for social work. In addition to that a theoretical and practical based framework comprising of narrative principles and techniques is attended to. In the discussion of perspectives on a basis theory for social work, reference is made to: a narrative pastoral epistemology, the development of Biblical based narrative perspectives, narratives, stories, the utilization of stories based on Biblical principles, the use of stories in a therapeutic context, cultural values and stories, and diaconiologically based narrative-therapeutic principles for social work. Based on the aforementioned theory, attention is given to narrative therapeutic perspectives such as: the beginning of a therapeutic interview, deconstruction theories, externalising, re-authoring of stories, ceremonies, remembering discussions and taking it back actions. In the last phase of the study attention is given to the execution of a limited phenomenological investigation. For this purpose a focus group has been used. The data gathered from the focus group discussion is interpreted in a hermeneutical manner to draw certain conclusions to support the literature review. To complete this phase, conclusions are made of the preliminary investigation in an explorative way with applicable recommendations to be implemented in practice. In substance the conclusions and recommendations are the following: At this point of time we live in an era of postmodernism. Science cannot escape the influence of post modern thought. The essence that has to be noted in an interview, is the moving away from firm values and firm interpretations. Language is allocated with the status of a regulatory norm that counts. It denies the existence of any truth or principles. All attempts to create truth are deconstructed by using language. The existence of the Bible, that it is God’s Word and that it has a transcendent character, is rejected. In reaction to post modernistic narrative approaches and current social problems such as social decline (ethical development), material needs (poverty) and spiritual needs (pastoral eschatology) it has been found that Christian social work grounded in a pastoral design can make a contribution to change the current decline in society. It can be done by using Christian narrative principles. In this way man is made aware of Transcendent Hope as well as a lifestyle with an immortality view. Item Open Access'n Gestaltgroepwerkprogram in maatskaplike werk vir toesighoudende, geskeide ouer(University of the Free State, 2005-04) Viljoen, Alma; Schoeman, H. P.; Ferreira, S. B.English: Divorce is an increasing problem which influences the lives of a great number of parents and children in South Africa. The increasing number of divorce cases in South Africa and the impact which custodian, divorced parents have on the adjustment of their children to the divorce situation, serve as the main motivation for this study. The research problem which is the focus of this study is the design and development of a gestalt group work programme for custodian, divorced parents in the early adult phases’ awareness, self-support and integration. The first four phases of the intervention research design and development model are used as the research design. Intervention research is regarded as suitable because as applied research, it focuses on guiding researchers and practitioners to develop effective interventions to address existing human and social problems. To develop a gestalt group work programme, a literature study is undertaken during which the focus is on a theoretical perspective of gestalt therapy as conceptual framework, gestalt group work as therapeutic intervention form and gestalt group work activities and – techniques. A literature review is given next in regard to divorce and potential factors which can influence custodian, divorced parents’ adjustment to the divorce situation in the early adult phase. Although other therapeutic approaches may also be relevant, gestalt therapy is seen as the appropriate conceptual framework for the design and development of a group work programme for custodian, divorced parents on account of the holistic element, theoretical point of departure and objectives which are upheld. To complement the literature study, an empirical study is undertaken in the form of a qualitative study. For the purposes of this study six Afrikaans speaking custodian, divorced parents (both genders), between 20 and 40 years old, are involved. Non-probability selection, namely purposeful test sample out of the universe of participants were chosen for one gestalt group work session (120 minutes) per week, over a period of ten weeks with a concept-gestalt group programme for their awareness, self-support and integration. During programme implementation qualitative data in regard to participants’ experiences and reactions are collected by means of direct, systematical and participatory observation where after research data is observed and judged by an independent observer – an expert in the field of gestalt therapy. Qualitative observations which is made during the implementation of the concept programme, is described by means of case studies, through a comprehensive explanation of each participant as well as the group’s reaction during each gestalt group work session. The results and assessment of the information of the six participants which is obtained from the case studies, is done by means of aims and goals of each gestalt group work session, the covering objectives of gestalt therapy and -group work, objectives in regard to each group member, objectives in regard to group level and gestalt moments. The group process as well as each group member (participant) is assessed continiously by means of the five levels of neurosis. As a result of the study the conclusion is reached that gestalt therapy offers a suitable framework for a group work programme for custodian, divorced parents’ awareness, selfsupport and integration. Because of the holistic outlook and objectives of the programme, participants are equipped to move through the levels of neurosis at group level as well as individually to function as conscious, self-supporting and integrated units. Recommendations with regard to the content and course of the programme, as well as to training and further research, are formulated as a result of the conclusions. Item Open Access'n Ekologiese perspektief op die straatkindverskynsel(University of the Free State, 2008-11) Louw, Susanna; Reyneke, R. P.English: The purpose of this research is to look at the street child manifestation from an ecological perspective in order to obtain indicators which are important to an intervention plan for street children. The ecological perspective is utilised as a frame for the investigation, since it provides a complete holistic and systematic frame and does not proceed in a linear dimension of merely cause and effect. This perspective has resulted in the research being very meaningful since the totality of the street child has been taken into consideration and a comprehensive intervention plan, including every aspect of the child could be compiled. The literature study, as well as the empirical investigation, took place on four different levels of the ecological perspective, namely the micro-, meso-, exo- and macro levels. The micro-system is based on the following aspects, namely the physiological aspects, cognition, social emotional aspects and personality. With respect to the micro-level, the street child is exposed to much trauma and losses. The child is deprived and interventions are required in order to provide this child with care, healing, development of self and the building of relationships. In the meso-system the following systems are included viz. the family, school and peer group since these are the closest to the street child. In this meso-system it has been found that the child suffers many losses. There are practically no family structures in the world of the street child. The school is an important system in order to develop the child and train him for the labour market. The peer group plays an important role in the child’s bonding and support on the street. In the meso-system it has been found that the child must receive specific interventions which will stimulate his feeling of belonging, address his education as well as his development regarding his life skills. Regarding the exo-system, specific attention was given to the following systems: the community, public, SAPS, health, social services, religious institutions, business and habitat. It was found that the exo-system does not provide a support system to the street child. He lives isolated from support, nor does he utilise the positive systems such as health services and the church which are available for his development. In his original community there is also no support network. It is therefore important that a support system be created in the intervention in order to stimulate and support the child’s development. A support system or positive network also provides meaning to his life and gives him hope, which motivates him with regard to his own life and future. The macro-system is, for the purposes of this study, represented by acts/policy, culture, politics and religion. In South Africa the macro-system is directed to the protection and development of structures and policy with respect to children. The execution of this policy is hampered by deficient manpower and finances. The macro-system must be applied in such a manner that the street child is protected and also facilitates his development. It was concluded that the intervention with the street children should be handled by a specialist team, as well as by members of the community. The interventions must be specifically directed to the micro-system, the care, healing, bonding with other systems and the development of the child. Regarding the meso-system, focus is on development of the feeling of belonging, training and further development of life skills. Regarding the exo-system, the interventions are handled by means of a multidisciplinary team as well as community members and resources, all directed to support. The development of the support system will then contribute to creating hope in the child. In the macro-system the intervention is directed to safeguarding the street child and developing systems and policies which are to the advantage of the street child. The ecological perspective offers a comprehensive framework within which the street child may be treated as a creature of totality. Item Open Access’n Ekologiese perspektief op pleegsorg as alternatiewe sorg vir kinders(University of the Free State, 2009-11) Böning, Anna Elizabeth; Ferreira, S. B.English: The aim of this research was to undertake a holistic exploration and description of the practice of foster care in order to develop a more scientifically based approach to service delivery. By means of the literature study and empirical investigation, which included qualitative as well as quantative methods, a comprehensive analysis were undertaken at all levels of the ecological analysis systems. Not only were specific obstacles identified that are detrimental to service delivery in the practice of service delivery, but the objective also was to come up with strengths and solutions by integrating the strengths perspective with the conceptual framework of the ecological perspective. To this end, frameworks for the assessment of the individual, family, structures and institutions, as well as socio-cultural aspects were each presented individually, where after an integrated assessment framework for holistic assessment was compiled. By means of the empirical qualitative and quantative investigations it was confirmed that the practice of foster care is overburdened with the incidence of serious social phenomena like poverty, AIDS-related deaths, dysfunctional families and inadequate parental functioning. It was confirmed that social workers are confronted with high case loads and that service delivery centres on administrative and statutory procedures, while very little comes of intervention and prevention services in particular. Further demands are made on the practice by the implementation of new children’s legislation, which is aimed at prevention and early intervention programmes, before any statutory intervention en foster-care placing can be justified. Much more manpower and resources are needed and the subsidising of prevention and development programmes, as well as better remuneration of social workers, should seriously be considered by non-governmental organisations in particular. The development of foster-care group schemes could alleviate the demands made on the practice of foster care, because monitoring and supervisory services could be implemented in group context as well as by other social services groups. Furthermore, it also lessens the demand for foster parents, of which there is a huge shortage. Proposals are made regarding better coordination at regional level regarding the recruiting, selection and training of foster parents, which can be dealt with more economically as a speciality area. A greater awareness is awarded to the role and function of other social services professions such as the social auxiliary worker and child and youth careworkers, in order to enable social workers to focus more on the professional performance of their duties. The composition of multi-disciplinary teams and the promotion of interdepartmental collaboration are also emphasised, enabling service delivery to the foster child to be spread across a wider spectrum. The little success that is achieved with services dealing with the reuniting of families also points at the lack of real rehabilitation services in the case of biological parents. Foster placing on a long-term basis mostly takes place with relatives, which is mainly only monitored statutorily. Children placed in foster care with grandmothers and in child-headed households are also particularly vulnerable and therefore support systems in communities in particular should be applied by volunteers in order to offer placing stability and extra support to enable the child to remain within a family context for as long as possible. The outcomes of foster care are therefore dependent upon the interaction between different role players and institutions, and should be better managed and controlled. Thus policy directives and legislature, which currently have unrealistic expectations in many respects measured against the realities in practice can be realised better. The information in the research report is regarded as comprehensive and holistic with regard to the reciprocal influence of risky and protective factors in the practice of foster care. The focus is not specifically on intervention or assistance, but rather a description and exploration of the current state of the practice of foster care. Valuable information was obtained from the literature study and the qualitative and quantative empirical study, which can be regarded as reliable and valid to utilise as resource for further research, adjustments to policy and training in theory as well as in practice. Item Open AccessMaatskaplikewerkhulpverlening aan gesinne in egskeidingsituasies(University of the Free State, 2010-03) Heyns, Letisia Susanna; Du Plessis, M. J. M.English: Divorce is a serious problem phenomenon that is increasing in our society, whilst numeruous households in our community are affected by it. Insufficient information is available with regard to the type and extent of social work services that should be rendered to families in divorce situations. The focus is essentially on specific areas such as the legal aspects attached to divorce. There is no uniformity in social work services that are rendered to families in divorce situations. The danger therefore might be that the family members should struggle on their own through the trauma of their divorce situations. This issues therefore forms the motivation for the study. The focus was, during the literature study, on the theoretical foundation of social constructionism which was used as the conceptual framework for the study. The literature overview focuses further on the narrative approach which results from the social constructionism and has been utilized as a strategy during the study. The literature study also focused on the three most prominent divorce models described in the literature as well as the most important services and resources which are available to families in divorce situations. An overview was given about the meaning and reality constructions which the different family members attached to their divorce situations. The literature overview was completed with a discussion of the participatory action research which was used as research method during the empirical study. The literature study was supplemented with an empirical study according to a qualitative investigation. Participatory action research was utilized as the method of research. Adult white males and – females who were in the process of divorce, or either already been divorced, as well as a limit number of some of the children of the participants were involved in the research. Individual interviews, groupdiscussions and a workshop were utilized to establish the needs and existing reality constructions of the participants. Groupdiscussions were done mostly on weekly basis and took approximately ninety minutes per discussion. During the interaction processes and the action phase of the participatory action research, the narrative approach was utilized as strategy. The participants got the opportunity to define their problem dominated themes and to externalized it by means of the utilization of the narrative approach. Unique outcomes were identified gradually in the participants stories which were then again utilized as the basis in the developing of new narratives. The new story includes specific outcomes and planning, focussed on the needs and problems identified by the participants. As the participants put into effect their actions and planning they succeeded in completing the tasks which were identified as relevant to cope with their divorce situation. The process of interaction which took place throughout the research lead to a continuous process through which participants changed and/or transformed their existing reality constructions concerning their divorce situation. This resulted in behavioural change of the participants. The “definitional ceremonies” confirmed the new stories which were facilitated through witnesses. “Remembering conversations” provided the opportunity to participants to arrange persons and resources in such a way that those who support the new narratives becomes more prominent in their lives. During the “taking it back practices” the contributions of participants to the life of the researcher were acknowledged. The life of the researcher therefore was described more richly. In accordance with participatory action research, participants were recruited throughout the project and become part of the project for the divorced (or persons in the process of a divorce) within the church community where the research was conducted. The process of participatory action research became entangled with the process of social work service delivery to individuals and families in divorce situations in such a way that the research became a sustainable modus operandi towards such individuals. The social worker could gradually take less responsibility for the process. The narrative approach seems to be an ideal stategy to implement participatory action reseach and eventually, as in this research project, to render social work services to families in divorce situations. As the process unfolds the participants were able to successfully complete the tasks that are necessary to adjust to their divorce situation. Item Open AccessMaatskaplikewerkhulpverlening volgens die narratiewe werkswyse aan persone wat 'n amputasie ondergaan het(University of the Free State, 2010-09) Els, Johanna Susanna; Du Plessis, M. J. M.English: An amputation is a traumatic event which has far-reaching consequences. Persons with physical disabilities are of the most vulnerable in society. In the postmodern era discourse has evolved in which the empowerment of people with disabilities, has been emphasized. The influence of postmodern epistemology, constructivism and social constructionism, had contributed to the development of the narrative approach to therapeutic intervention. The narrative approach is based on the assumption that narratives are the constructions and frameworks of concepts and beliefs by which we interpret and understand our lives. The narrative approach provides possibilities to create new meanings and alternative stories and is therefore a preferred strategy for the treatment of amputees. The research is founded in the Christian worldview and the main features of a Christian anthropology. That implies the description of the role of Christianity in the historical origins of social work, the influence on social work principles and some implications for a Christian approach to social work practice. The social worker in a Provincial regional hospital is part of a multi-disciplinary team that offers rehabilitation to amputees. Rehabilitation services focus on the improvement of the mobility and independence of people with disabilities and aim to help the person to achieve the highest possible level of physical, psychological, spiritual and social functioning. Qualitative research, namely participatory action research according to the narrative approach, is followed. The objective is the active involvement of participants to tell their problem-saturated stories and narrate their feelings and experiences, in order to develop a program for social work intervention according to the Christian approach, to amputees. Participants included amputees, significant role players in their lives and the multi-disciplinary team of a Provincial regional hospital and the story telling contributed to the development of knowledge and certain actions to improve service delivery to amputees. Item Open AccessA social work programme for the development of the spiritual strengths of midlife women(University of the Free State, 2013-11) Weyers, Annette; Ferreira, S. B.English: Modern society is distinguished by on-going social change that restructures the ways in which individuals live, forcing them to reappraise their coping strategies continually. The midlife transition of women has not escaped the changes brought about by modern society. Many of the challenges women face in midlife are brought about by the changes introduced by modernity. A noted change is the developmental designs of previous generations that have become defunct, compelling women to shape new midlife developmental patterns innovatively. These women are now recruiting spiritual strengths to invigorate growth and support adaption in this phase of life. A key argument of this study is that that spirituality has the capacity to be a source of strength and that women can access their spiritual strengths to support their midlife transition. Furthermore, the study also maintains that social work’s mission to promote clients’ wellbeing compels a holistic approach that recognises the role of spiritual strengths in advancing a sense of wellbeing. Thus, primarily directed by the strengths perspective’s stance that all individuals have strengths, capacities and resources that can be mobilised to enhance their quality of life, the study set about delineating guidelines for a social work programme to facilitate the identification and mobilisation of spiritual strengths to support women’s midlife transition in order to enhance a sense of wellbeing. Based on the literature review and the empirical investigation, the study concludes that women’s midlife developmental patterns are indeed customised to fit their own experiences of midlife, and are therefore variable. Furthermore, for many midlife women their spirituality and spiritual strengths are vital to their adaption to midlife, and they are keenly interested in expanding their spiritual strengths. Thus, informed by the empirical investigation and literature review, the study recommends guidelines for a programme pertaining to potential material to be included; modes of actions to be undertaken; possible format; and the preparation and role of the social worker. It is further recommended that the programme be adjusted sensitively to meet the requirements for the identification and development of the spiritual strengths as they apply to every individual group of midlife women. Item Open AccessRestoring our children: why a restorative approach is needed to discipline South African children(Faculty of Education, University of the Free State, 2015) Reyneke, Roelf P.Behavioural problems are commonly experienced in schools. This contributes to poor academic results and general disciplinary problems, among other things. It is argued that punitive disciplinary methods are aggravating unacceptable behaviours. This paper presents information about the use of punishment, how children react to these measures, and reasons why they react in the way they do. The Circle of Courage philosophy is linked to restorative practices as a response to disciplinary problems. By presenting this, the author contributes to the debate on approaches to discipline and aims to show that, since so many children are troubled, they need to be disciplined in a psychologically healthier way. High levels of caring and control could significantly reduce disciplinary problems in schools. Item Open AccessGuidelines for social work supervision from a developmental approach(University of the Free State, 2022) Nortje, Madelein; Reyneke, R. P.English: Supervision plays an important role in the efficacy of service rendering and the professional development of social workers. Effective supervision should be grounded in theory and aligned with the national approach to social welfare. In South Africa, the Developmental Approach should be engrained in supervision practices to be aligned with the National welfare approach. Ultimately, supervision must focus on the deliberate development of the social workers to become more competent professionals, and the fundamental goal would be to provide excellent professional services to the service user. The focus of this study was to explore the implementation of supervision using the Developmental Approach, identify good and bad supervision practices, and develop guidelines for appropriate developmental supervision practices. The mixed-method research design (QUAL-quan) was used and involved social workers and supervisors from five provinces in the qualitative phase. During semi-structured interviews, current practices of supervision were explored. The objective of the quantitative phase was to involve more respondents to corroborate the information gathered during the first phase. Unfortunately, the response rate 1for the qualitative phase was extremely low, and the results cannot be generalised. The quantitative information does, however, provide important insights and support the information from the qualitative phase. The findings from the study revealed that supervisors do not use the Developmental Approach during supervision. Various challenges present themselves in the implementation of developmental supervision. The combination of limited conceptualisation of the Developmental Approach in supervision, a lack of knowledge among social workers and supervisors of the Developmental Approach and numerous structural issues in terms of resources and the realities of society hamper the implementation of the Developmental Approach. The study further revealed that, in many instances, the Developmental Approach, the national approach to social services, is not implemented in social work practice. The results show that supervisors carry out supervision without a thorough knowledge and understanding that underpins the theory of supervision, and their actions haphazardly attend to the supervisee's needs. Conducting supervision in this manner will negatively impact the development of the social worker and consequently hamper service delivery. The study resulted in developing guidelines for supervision that will promote the integration of the Developmental Approach in supervision.The aim of the guidelines is to ensure constructive realignment of supervision practices with the national approach to social services. Other recommendations include the following: • Social workers and supervisors must realise that social work is a profession, and that relevant theories should inform their practice. • Social workers and supervisors must have appropriate and professional knowledge of relevant theories, practice models and approaches and refrain from intuitive actions without a proper theoretical foundation when making decisions. • Social workers and supervisors must be proficient in applying theory in practice, and relevant theories, models and approaches should inform all services to service users and supervision of social workers. • Practice standards focusing on outcomes defined in terms of specific skills contributing to the effectiveness of social workers should be implemented. • The outcomes of supervision must be clearly defined according to a framework based on the professional skills required of a social worker. • The implementation of the proposed guidelines should acknowledge the current experience level and the expectations of the social worker. • The expectations of each social worker should be adapted according to the level of experience, and outcomes should promote progressive development. • Accredited training for supervisors should be implemented according to indigenous theories, techniques and approaches that specifically focus on supervision. Item Open AccessImplementing the supervision framework for the social work profession: supervisors’ views and experiences(Unisa Press, 2023) Tsima, Doris Lesego; Ncube, MpumeleloThis study focused on social work supervision and its impact on the occupational development and service delivery of supervisees, specifically within the South African Department of Social Development (DSD). While previous research has often examined the views and experiences of supervisees and student social workers, the study uniquely explored the perspective of social work supervisors. Utilising the systems theory as a theoretical framework, qualitative research with semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was employed. The findings revealed significant structural challenges that hindered the alignment of social work supervision with the DSD’s established Supervision Framework. As the scope of the study was limited to the Mahikeng Service Point, North West, South Africa, generalisation is cautioned, necessitating further research in other welfare organisations for a broader understanding.