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dc.contributor.advisorHuman, J. L. K.
dc.contributor.authorKruger, Christie Marius Frans
dc.date.accessioned2018-08-21T09:14:42Z
dc.date.available2018-08-21T09:14:42Z
dc.date.issued1986-01
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/9153
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The author of this treatise is a musician and pedagogue. He became blind at the age of four. At the time of the completion of this treatise, the author has had more than thirty years of teaching experience. The motivation for this treatise has been to identify deficiencies such as the shortage of literature directed towards the blind piano pedagogue, discrimination against blind teachers in the open professional job market and autogenous problems concerning the blind piano pedagogue. The aim is to analyse pedagogical problems concerning blind music teachers of seeing pupils, to suggest solutions to said problems and to suggest guidelines in the training of blind music teachers. Method of research – a study of relevant literature, personal interviews with individuals, correspondence with educational departments; analysis of facts gleaned from questionnaires to blind music teachers, ex-pupils and headmasters and an intensive analysis of empirical findings based upon personal experience. Approximately 0,2% of the population of first world countries is estimated to be visually impaired. About 29% of the visually impaired White pupils are totally blind and therefore dependent on braille. The remaining 71% of the visually impaired can be divided into two categories: individuals with limited vision who are also dependent on braille and persons who can, with the aid of electronic and optical devices, read printed matter. Two schools, Pioneer School (Worcester) and Prinshof School (Pretoria) provide specialized education for blind European children in the Republic. Subjects and syllabi correspond with subjects and syllabi in ordinary schools. The external examinations in standard 10 as well as the university courses are the same as those for students who can see. Prospective blind music teachers should be carefully selected as to their efficiency, qualifications and their ability to communicate with their prospective colleagues and pupils. At the moment there are only 15 visually impaired music teachers in the Republic: 1 lectures at a university, 1 teaches at a technical college, 5 are appointed at schools, 4 teach music privately, 4 teachers, who do not use braille, are not taken into consideration for this treatise. Autogenous problems with which blind teachers have to cope, are: 1. The attitude of society toward the blind: Ultimately the responsibility lies with the blind music teacher to enhance his image in the community. 2. Employment: 75% of the educational departments in the Republic are willing to employ efficient, qualified blind music teachers. 3. Mobility: The totally blind teacher will have to solve this problem satisfactorily. 4. Classroom situation: Braille is used for controlling the pupils’ work; correction of the pupils’ written work needs the assistance of a seeing person. 5. Discipline: Individuals and small groups are handled efficiently. 6. New music in braille: As in overseas countries the services of volunteer transcribers will alleviate the pressure. In France, Louis Braille (1809 – 1852), developed the raised dot system during the first half of the nineteenth century. The braille cell consists of 6 dots; it provides 63 possible combinations. Besides the alphabet, punctuation marks and figures, there is a complete code for writing music in braille. There are several braille printing presses abroad, but in the Republic of South Africa the Braille Music Library and the Braille Printing Press of the Pioneer School at Worcester are, respectively, concerned with the circulation and publication of music in braille. It is of paramount importance that the prospective blind music teacher should have a thorough knowledge of staff notation before embarking on a teaching career in a school for seeing children. In the teaching of staff notation to seeing pupils the blind teacher uses a variety of educational aids at his disposal. The syllabi for music education in the secondary school as well as the syllabi for extra-curricular music are supplied by the various educational departments. The syllabi for the external music examinations of UNISA, The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ASB) and the Trinity College of Music are obtainable from the respective boards. Apart from a brief discussion of the traditional Realism of Harry S. Broudy and the contemporary Pragmatism of Foster McMurray, the author formulates his philosophy of music education. Ten educational learning processes as well as six teaching methods as applied to music are discussed. The methodology of the blind music teacher is based on a personal relationship with his pupils, a thorough knowledge of this subject, a cultivated aural perception and a reliable memory. In the case of a beginner or while an advanced pupil is studying a work with hands separately, a braille copy will suffice in controlling every aspect of the pupil’s playing. When, however, a piece is being performed at the required tempo, it is essential that the blind piano teacher knows the music by heart. The piano teacher will thus be able to demonstrate difficult passages, technical problems and fingering to the pupil. Each aspect of the pupil’s musical education should be cultivated at every lesson. Harmony is done at the keyboard. In theoretical subjects, apart form explanations, various educational aids are implemented to complete tuition. Correction of the written work of the pupils is done with the aid of advanced pupils, a colleague or a wife. The method of pupils exchanging books with a view to marking can be utilized successfully by the blind teacher. Different aspects of piano technique such as technical exercises, scales, legato, staccato, finger work, pedaling and phrasing are discussed. Questionnaires which were completed anonomously by seeing ex-pupils depict a competent image of the blind piano teacher. The relationship between teacher and pupil, the blind piano teacher’s competency, his educational achievements as well as his ability to impart knowledge were evaluated as very good. An opinion poll among headmasters who have experience of blind piano teachers on their staff, has recorded the blind piano teacher as competent in his subject with a good rating in teaching achievements. In the majority of cases the teacher is accepted by the pupils and their parents and well adapted to the normal school situation. The blind piano teacher’s ability for class discipline is adequate and his mobility sufficient. The blind piano teacher’s efficiency in extra-mural activities is adequate. With regard to autogenous problems he needs some assistance from a seeing person. Harry Greenwood (1868 – 1948) was the first qualified blind music teacher in South Africa. Harry Greenwood started the training of blind musicians in piano and organ in 1894 at the School for the Blind, Worcester. During the past ninety years music education by blind music teachers has been confined to Europeans only. The Department of Education and Training (Black People), the Department of Education and Culture Administration: House of Delegates (Indians) and the Department of Education and Culture Administration: House of Representatives (Coloureds) have declared that they are willing to appoint efficient, qualified blind music teachers. With the development of technology more efficient aids are available which enable the blind piano teacher to procure employment and thus make a significant contribution to piano teaching in the Republic of South Africa.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Skrywer van hierdie verhandeling is ‘n musikus en musiekpedagoog. Hy is blind sedert sy vierde jaar. Hy beskik oor meer as dertig jaar onderwysondervinding. Die motivering vir die verhandeling is om bestaande leemtes soos die knellende tekort in die voorsiening van nuwe musiek in braille, diskriminasie in die werkverskaffingsituasie en eiesoortige problem te identifiseer. Die doel is om die didaktiese problematiek van klavieronderrig deur blinde leerkragte aan siende leerlinge te stele n moontlike oplossings aan die hand te gee wat as riglyn vir die opleiding van blinde musiekleerkragte kan dien. Navorsingsmetode: Inligting is ingewin deur ‘n studie van bestaande lektuur wat plaaslik en in die buiteland opgespoor is, deur briefwisseling met die verskillende onderwysdepartment in die land en deur vraelyste aan skoolhoofde, aan blinde sowel as siende klavierleerkragte en aan ongeveer vyftig siende oud-leerlinge te stuur en die antwoorde met rekenaars te verwerk, asook deur telefoonoproepe en onderhoude. Daarbenewens is daar op meer as dertig jaar persoonlike ervaring as verwysingsraamwerk gesteun. Ongeveer 0,2% van die bevolking van ‘n land word as gesiggestremd bereken. Sowat 29% van die berekende blanke skoolgaande gesiggestremdes is geheel blind en uitsluitlik van braille afhanklik. Die oorblywende 71% is deelsiende en kan in twee kategorieë verdeel word: die persone met beperkte visie wat ook van braille gebruik maak en dié vir wie drukskrif in ‘n mindere of meerdere mate toeganklik is. Die musiekleerkragte wat nie van braille gebruik maak nie, word vir die doel van die verhandeling nie in berekning gebring nie. Twee skole vir buitengewone onderwys, die Pionierskool te Worcester en die Prinshofskool vir Swaksiendes in Pretoria, voorsien in die opvoeding van alle blanke gesiggestremde leerlinge in die Republiek. Die leerplanne en vakke stem ooreen met dié in gewonde skole; aan die einde van standerd 10 lê die candidate eksterne eksamens af. Vir tersiêre opleiding volg blinde student dieselfde kursusse as siende student aan opvoedkundige inrigtings. ‘n Streng keuring van voornemende blinde musiekleerkragte ten opsigte van kwalifikasies, verantwoordelikheid en aanvaarbaarheid word voorgestel. Slegs 15 blanke gesiggestremde musiekleerkragte beoefen tans die beroep in die Republiek: 1 aan ‘n universiteit, 1 aan ‘n tegniese college, 5 aan skole, 4 gee private onderrig, 4 gebruik nie braille nie en word nie in berekening gebring nie. Eiesoortige problem word in ‘n mindere of meerdere mate deur alle blinde musiekleerkragte ervaar. 1. ‘n Bevooroordeelde gemeenskap: Dit is die taak van die blinde klavierleerkrag om sy selfbeeld te verbeter. 2. Die moontlikheid om ‘n betrekking te bekom: 6 van die 8 onderwysdepartemente is bereid om bevoegde gesiggestremde musiekleerkragte in diens te neem. 3. Mobilitieit: Die geheel blinde person moet vir homself ‘n oplossing vind. 4. Klaskamersituasie: Braille word vir kontrole aangewend; vir die nasien van skriftelike werk word van ‘n siende persoon gebruik gemaak. 5. Dissipline: Individuele leerlinge en klein groepe word met gemak hanteer. 6. Nuwe musiek in braille: Dit is wenslik dat die voorsiening bespoedig word deur van die dienste van vrywillige kopieerders gebruik te maak. Braille, ‘n stelsel wat op die 63 moontlike samestellings van die braillesel (6 verhewe puntjies) berus, is in Frankryk deur Louis Braille (1809 – 1852) ontwerp. Braille is teen die einde van die vorige eeu internasionaal aanvaar. Benewens die alphabet, leestekens en syfers word musiek in braille geskryf. Braillemusiek word deur drukkerye in verskeie oorsese lande voorsien. In die Republiek word musiek in braille deur die Brailledrukkery en die Braillemusiekbiblioteek te Worcester geproduseer en versprei. ‘n Grondige kennis van balkskrif is noodsaaklik vir die blinde klavierleerkrag van siende leerlinge. ‘n Verskeidenheid onderwysmedia word deur die blinde klavierleerkrag by die onderrig van notasie aan siende leerlinge gebruik. Die leerplanne vir vakondderig vanaf standerd 6 tot 10, asook die leerplan vir buite-kurrikulêre musiekonderrig word deur die verskillende onderwysdepartemente voorsien. Die sillabusse vir die eksterne musiekeksamens van UNISA, The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ASB) en die Trinity College of Music is by die verskillende instansies verkrygbaar. Benewens die tradisionele Realisme van Harry S. Broudy en die kontemporêre Pragmatisme van Foster McMurracy, word die skrywer se filosofiese beskouing van musiekonderig bespreek. Tien leerprosesse en ses onderwysmetodes van toepassing op musiekonderwys word behandel. Die blinde klavierleerkrag se metodologie berus op ‘n goeie verhouding met sy leerlinge, ‘n grondige vakkennis, sy geoefende gehoor en sy betroubare geheue. By die onderrig van beginners is dit vir die blinde klavierleerkrag moontlik om voldoende kontrole met behulp van ‘n braille-kopie uit te oefen. By die onderrig van gevorderde leerlinge is genoemde metode ontoereikend. Dit is noodsaaklik dat die blinde klavierleerkrag die voorgeskrewe voordragstukke memoriseer, soda thy moeilike passasies, tegniese problem en vingersettings kan demonstreer. Tydens elke les moet aandag aan alle aspekte van musiekonderrig geskenk word. Harmonie word by die clavier gedoen, terwyl teoretiese onderrig deur die leerkrag verduidelik en met onderwysmedia toegelig word. Vir nasienwerk word van die dienste van ‘n gevorderde leerling, ‘n kollega of ‘n eggenote gebruik gemaak. Die metode waarvolgens leerlinge boeke omruil om mekaar se skriftelike werk n ate sien, is ‘n algemen gebruik in die klaskamersituasie en word ook deur die blinde musiekleerkrag suksesvol toegepas. Ten opsigte van klaviertegniek word die volgende aspekte behandel: tegniese oefeninge, toonlere, legato, staccato, vingerwerk, pedaalaanwending en frasering. Die volgende gegewens is verstrek in vraelyste wat anonym deur oud-leerlinge ingevul en met ‘n rekenaar verwerk is: Verhouding tussen blinde klavierleerkrag en leerling – baie goed Vakkennis – baie goed Oordrag van vakkennis – baie goed Klavieronderrig – baie goed Onderrig van Musiekteorie – baie goed Onderrig van Harmonie – baie goed. Uit ‘n vraelys aan hoofed onder wie se toesig blinde musiekleerkragte werk, is die volgende inligting ingewin: Vakkennis – goed Onderwysprestasies – goed Aanvaarbaar vir ouers en leerlinge Aanpasbaarheid in skoolsituasie – goed Organisasievermoë binne skoolverband – goed Dissipline – bevredigend Mobiliteit – genoegsaam Betrokkenheid by buitemuurse aktiwiteite – bevredigend Eiesoortige problem – afhanklik van die hulp van siende persone. Harry Greenwood (1868 – 1948) was die eerste blinde musiekleerkrag in Suid-Afrika. Hy het in 1894 as die eerste musiekonderwyser aan die Skool vir Blindes te Worcester diens aanvaar. In die Republiek van Suid-Afrika is tot op datum slegs blanke blinde musiekleerkragte opgelei. Die Departement van Onderwys en Opleiding (Swart Onderwys), die Departement van Onderwys en Kultuur Administrasie: Raad van Afgevaardigdes (Indiëronderwys) en die Departement van Onderwys en Kultuur Administrasie: Raad van Verteenwoordigers (Kleurlingonderwys) is bereid om bevoegde blinde musiekleerkragte in diens te neem. Met die ontwikkeling van die tegnologie en die talle onderwysmedia tot sy beskikking is die blinde leerkrag in staat om ‘n sinvolle bydrae tot klavieronderrig te lewer.en_ZA
dc.language.isoafen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectPianoen_ZA
dc.subjectMusicen_ZA
dc.subjectEducation mediaen_ZA
dc.subjectBlind music teachersen_ZA
dc.subjectBlind piano pedagogueen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Mus. (Music))--University of the Free State, 1986en_ZA
dc.titleKlavierdidaktiese problematiek in die onderrig van siende leerlinge deur blinde leerkragte in Suid-Afrikaen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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