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dc.contributor.advisorAllwright, Amy
dc.contributor.authorHughes, Philip James
dc.date.accessioned2018-06-26T09:58:11Z
dc.date.available2018-06-26T09:58:11Z
dc.date.issued2018-01
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/8636
dc.description.abstractEnglish: A formerly operational manufacturing company, Delta E.M.D (Pty) Ltd (Delta) was, until recently, located in Mbombela (Nelspruit), Mpumalanga and produced electrolytic manganese dioxide (MnO2:EMD), an inorganic compound used for dry-cell batteries including alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. The operational site has been subject to various site investigations between 2010 and 2015 which ultimately informed a site-wide rehabilitation and closure plan. The site has since been demolished as part of a site rehabilitation activity undertaken during 2015 and 2016. During the course of 2014 to 2015, the author developed a site investigation strategy that utilised multiple site investigation technologies to characterise the geological, hydrogeological and contaminated groundwater situation at the site. This allowed for a site specific remediation strategy to be developed. The site is located within an industrial area of Mbombela (Nelspruit), Mpumalanga within the Mbombela Local Municipality. To the immediate north of the site, a wide single-carriageway road is present which overlooks undeveloped bush land leading towards the Crocodile River located 200 m beyond. The local area is underlain by medium to very coarse grained granite which has been intruded by numerous basic dykes and sills. The granite is fractured and highly weathered in the upper 15 m. North-South trending geological structures are present which represent preferential pathways for groundwater flow and the migration of contaminants. The site characterisation work undertaken involved several phases of investigation including both non-intrusive and intrusive site investigation and sampling techniques. Specifically, the investigation involved: desktop research; geophysical surveying; borehole drilling and geotechnical drilling; monitoring well construction; soil and groundwater sampling; chemical analysis, and aquifer testing. The work undertaken resulted in identification of several sources of groundwater contamination and ultimately the development of an in-situ groundwater treatment strategy. Three hot spots of groundwater contamination were identified on site; the majority of the contamination was considered to be present within a phreatic shallow aquifer represented by a weathered horizon. The groundwater flow direction is in a northerly direction towards the Crocodile River, with a constant source of recharge being supplied by a man-made canal located along the western boundary of the site. Groundwater flow and contaminant migration towards the Crocodile River, was shown to be structurally controlled by the presence of faults and dykes. A source-pathway-receptor (S-P-R) assessment was undertaken which confirmed an active S-P-R model scenario would result in elevated concentrations of manganese and sulphate and low pH groundwater reaching the Crocodile River, which could negatively impact surface water quality. The information obtained and conceptual model that was developed was used to design the layout of a targeted on-site groundwater remediation system utilising the injection of lime to neutralise low pH water on site and allow for the precipitation of manganese from solution. The study, explores, how multiple site investigation technologies can be utilised to develop targeted and site-specific remediation strategies for contaminated groundwater within a fractured rock environment.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: 'n Voormalige operasionele maatskappy, Delta EMD (Edms) Bpk (Delta), geleë in Mbombela, Mpumalanga het tot onlangs elektrolitiese mangaandioksied (MnO2: EMD), 'n anorganiese verbinding wat gebruik word vir droë-sel batterye, insluitende alkaliese en sink-koolstof batterye, vervaardig. Die operasionele area was onderwerp aan verskeie terreinondersoeke tussen 2010 en 2015, wat uiteindelik 'n rehabilitasie- en sluitingplan vir die terrein voorgestel het. Die terrein is sedertdien gesloop as deel van die terreinrehabilitasie-aktiwiteit wat gedurende 2015 en 2016 onderneem is. Gedurende die periode 2014 tot 2015 het die skrywer 'n terreinondersoekstrategie ontwikkel wat gebruik gemaak het van verskeie tegnologieë om die geologiese, hidrogeologiese en gekontamineerde grondwatersituasie op die terrein te karakteriseer. Dit het toegelaat dat 'n terreinspesifieke remediëringstrategie ontwikkel is. Die terrein is geleë in 'n industriële gebied van Mbombela Plaaslike Munisipaliteit, in Mpumalanga. Daar is n wye enkelwegpad direk noord van die terrein, wat oor onontwikkelde bosveld terrein uitkyk, en wat na die Krokodilrivier, 200 m verder, lei. Die onderliggende geologie bestaan uit medium tot baie grofkorrelrige graniet wat deur talle basiese gange en plate ingedring is. Die graniet is genaat en is tot ‘n diepte van 15 meter, hoogs verweerd. Noord-suid strekkende geologiese strukture is teenwoordig wat voorkeurverweringsones vir grondwatervloei en die migrasie van opgelosde kontaminante vorm. Die terreinkarakteriseringswerk wat onderneem is, het uit verskeie fases bestaan, insluitende nie-indringende− en indringende terreinondersoek− en monsternemingstegnieke. Spesifiek, het die ondersoek die volgende ingesluit: literatuurstudies; geofisiese opnames; boorgat boorwerk en geotegniese boorwerk; monitering van boorgatkonstruksies; grond− en grondwater bemonstering; chemiese analise en akwifer toetsing. Die werk wat onderneem is, het gelei tot die identifisering van verskeie bronne van grondwaterbesoedeling en uiteindelik die ontwikkeling van 'n in-situ grondwaterbehandelingstrategie. Drie bronne van grondwaterbesoedeling is op die terrein geïdentifiseer. Die meerderheid van die besoedeling is aanwesig in 'n vlak versadigde (phreatic) akwifer in 'n verweringshorison. Die grondwatervloeirigting is in 'n noordelike rigting na die Krokodilrivier toe, met 'n konstante bron van aanvulling vanaf 'n mensgemaakte kanaal langs die westelike grens van die perseel. Grondwatervloei en kontaminante-migrasie na die Krokodilrivier het getoon dat dit struktureel beheer word deur die teenwoordigheid van verskuiwings en gange. 'n Bron-Roete Reseptor (B-R-R) evaluering is uitgevoer wat bevestig het dat 'n aktiewe B-R-R model sal lei tot verhoogde konsentrasies van mangaan, en sulfaat, en ‘n verlaagde Ph van die grondwater wat die Krokodilrivier se kwaliteit as varswaterbron negatief sal beïnvloed. Die inligting wat verkry is en die konseptuele model wat ontwikkel is, is gebruik om die uitleg van die geteikende terrein grondwater-remediëringsisteem te ontwerp deur gebruik te maak van die toevoeging van kalk om lae pH-water van die terrein te neutraliseer en die presipitasie van mangaan uit oplossing te verseker. Hierdie studie ondersoek hoe veelvuldige terreinondersoektegnologieë gebruik kan word om geteikende en terrein-spesifieke remediëringstrategieë vir gekontamineerde grondwater binne 'n verbrokkelde, rotsagtige omgewing te ontwikkel.en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectManganese enzymesen_ZA
dc.subjectMetals -- Finishingen_ZA
dc.subjectGroundwateren_ZA
dc.subjectManganeseen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.Sc. (Institute for Groundwater Studies))--University of the Free State, 2018en_ZA
dc.titleDetermination of the possible requirement for remediation of manganese impacted groundwater at an industrial facility in Nelspruiten_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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