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dc.contributor.advisorLe Roux, A.
dc.contributor.authorJordaan, Jacques
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-28T12:25:57Z
dc.date.available2016-11-28T12:25:57Z
dc.date.issued2003-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/4834
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Loneliness is currently regarded as one of the most common and widespread problems experienced by human beings, and it is also observed as a painful, unpleasant and negative experience. The term loneliness might conjure up an image of an elderly person, alone and isolated. It is a concern, however, that this complex phenomenon occurs to a great extent during adolescence. Reasons for this might be that adolescence is a developing period of transition between childhood and adulthood that brings with it more social changes, such as leaving home, to live by oneself, to attend university or to start a career. On the other hand morality entails the principles or ideals of a group that enable them to distinguish between right and wrong according to the viewpoint of the group concerned, and to behave accordingly. Moral development is thus the process whereby individuals learn principles to enable them to distinguish between behaviour that is right and other behaviour which should be regarded as wrong. The individual is then capable of directing his own behaviour in terms of these principles. Adolescents daily face various confrontations. Each day they have to make moral decisions: should they act according to their own ideals or should they compromise. In this sense, idealism implies to act morally and not to succumb to wrong temptations. Similarly, adolescents have to confront the complex phenomenon of loneliness daily. Thus loneliness and morality are two important behavioural aspects that manifest during adolescence. The question is whether morality could foretell loneliness. The researcher wished to establish a relationship between loneliness and morality for a better understanding of loneliness. In view of the above, the main objective of the study was to establish the perception of adolescents of different cultures regarding loneliness and morality and to investigate the relationship between loneliness and morality. It was also determined which of the independent variables, namely morality, gender, age, mother tongue and ethnicity, contributed significantly to the prediction of loneliness. A further objective was to determine any difference regarding loneliness and morality as perceived by different culture groups. The following hypotheses were formulated for this research: Hypothesis 1: The main hypothesis was that a linear correlation between the loneliness of an adolescent and a number of independent variables namely morality, gender, age, mother tongue and ethnicity were present. Hypothesis 2: There were differences between the different levels of the independent variables namely gender, age, mother tongue and ethnicity as far as loneliness and morality are concerned. The researcher used ex post facto research and more specifically a criterion group design. In this criterion group design, samples which represent the different levels of the independent variables were selected randomly from the population. A total of 714 adolescents from three different secondary schools in the greater Bloemfontein between the ages of 13 and 17 were selected. Adolescents were used because they are increasingly being confronted with moral issues and because loneliness occurs more commonly during adolescence. The focus was on three ethnic groups namely coloured, black and white adolescents. Three different questionnaires, namely the Le Roux Loneliness Scale, the Morally Debatable Behaviours Scale and a Biographical questionnaire were applied to obtain the necessary data. The results were as follows: -A significant inverse correlation between loneliness and morality was determined, while morality was identified as the best predictor of loneliness. According to the results adolescents with low moral values were more lonely than adolescents with high moral values. This is a new finding and merits further investigation. -Age was also identified as a main predictor of loneliness. Older adolescents were significantly more inclined to experience loneliness while younger adolescents were less inclined to loneliness. -It was also found that culture was an important variable in the study of loneliness. Black adolescents were significantly more inclined to loneliness than white and coloured adolescents. This research confirms that loneliness is a complex and disturbing phenomenon that appears more commonly during adolescence. Since these are new findings more research is merited.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Eensaamheid word tans as een van die mees algemene en wydverspreide probleme beskou, terwyl dit ook as ‘n pynlike, onaangename en negatiewe ervaring waargeneem word. Die term eensaamheid is geneig om gedagtes omtrent ‘n bejaarde persoon, wat alleen en geïsoleerd is, te ontlok, maar dis kommerwekkend dat hierdie komplekse verskynsel meer algemeen tydens adolessensie voorkom. Redes hiervoor kan wees dat adolessensie ‘n ontwikkelingsperiode van oorgang tussen die kinderjare en volwassenheid is en wat meer sosiale veranderinge teweeg bring, soos die verlating van die huis, om op hulle eie te bly, om universiteit toe te gaan of om voltyds te begin werk. Moraliteit, daarteenoor, is ‘n groep se beginsels of ideale wat hulle in staat stel om tussen reg en verkeerd te onderskei volgens die beskouing van die betrokke groep en om hulle gedrag dienooreenkomstig te rig. Morele ontwikkeling is dus die proses waardeur individue beginsels aanleer wat hulle in staat stel om bepaalde gedrag as reg en ander gedrag as verkeerd te beoordeel. Die individu is dan in staat om sy eie gedrag in terme van hierdie beginsels te rig. Adolessente staar daagliks verskeie konfrontasies in die gesig. Hulle moet elke dag morele besluite neem: moet hulle optree volgens hulle eie ideale of moet hulle ‘n ooreenkoms aangaan. Idealisme in hierdie sin is om moreel op te tree en nie voor verkeerde versoekings te swig nie. Net so moet adolessente die komplekse verskynsel van eensaamheid daagliks beveg. Eensaamheid en moraliteit is dus twee belangrike gedragsaspekte wat tydens adolessensie manifesteer. Die vraag is daarom of moraliteit nie moontlik ‘n voorspeller van eensaamheid kan wees nie. Die navorser wou dus bepaal of daar ‘n verband tussen eensaamheid en moraliteit is, met die doel om eensaamheid beter te begryp. In die lig van die voorafgaande bespreking was die hoofdoelwit van die studie derhalwe om adolessente van verskillende kulture se persepsies van hul eensaamheid en moraliteit te meet en om die verband tussen eensaamheid en moraliteit te ondersoek. Daar is ook vasgestel watter van die voorspellerveranderlikes, naamlik moraliteit, geslag, ouderdom, moedertaal en etnisiteit, betekenisvol tot die voorspelling van eensaamheid bydra. ‘n Verdere doelwit was om te bepaal of daar verskille ten opsigte van eensaamheid en moraliteit by die verskillende groepe voorkom. Die volgende hipoteses is vir die ondersoek geformuleer: Hipotese 1 : Die hoofnavorsingshipotese was dat daar ‘n lineêre verband tussen adolessente se eensaamheid en ‘n aantal voorspellerveranderlikes is, naamlik moraliteit, geslag, ouderdom, moedertaal en etniese groep. Hipotese 2 : Daar bestaan verskille tussen die verskillende vlakke van die onafhanklike veranderlikes, naamlik geslag, ouderdom, moedertaal en etniese groep, sover dit eensaamheid en moraliteit betref. Die navorser het van ex post facto-navorsing, en meer spesifiek ‘n kriteriumgroepontwerp, gebruik gemaak. In hierdie kriteriumgroepontwerp is steekproewe ewekansig vanuit die populasies, wat die verskillende vlakke van die onafhanklike veranderlikes verteenwoordig, getrek. Vanuit drie verskillende sekondêre skole in die groter Bloemfontein was 714 adolessente tussen die ouderdomme van 13 en 17 jaar betrek. Adolessente was gebruik, omdat hulle toenemend gekonfronteer word met morele sake en omdat eensaamheid meer algemeen tydens adolessensie voorkom. Daar is gepoog om suksesvol op drie etniese groepe, naamlik Kleurling, swart en wit adolessente te fokus. Drie verskillende vraelyste, naamlik Die Le Roux Eensaamheidskaal, “Morally Debatable Behaviors Scale” en ‘n Biografiese vraelys is op die proefpersone toegepas, ten einde die nodige data te bekom. Die resultate is as volg: -‘n Beduidende omgekeerde verband is tussen eensaamheid en moraliteit gevind, terwyl moraliteit as die beste voorspeller van adolessente se eensaamheid geïdentifiseer is. Hiervolgens is adolessente wat oor lae morele waardes beskik, meer eensaam as adolessente wat oor hoë morele waardes beskik. Hierdie is ‘n nuwe bevinding en behoort verder ondersoek te word. -Ouderdom is ook as ‘n belangrike voorspeller van eensaamheid geïdentifiseer. Ouer adolessente is meer geneig om eensaamheid te ervaar, terwyl die jonger adolessente minder tot eensaamheid geneig is. -Daar is ook vasgestel dat kultuur ‘n belangrike veranderlike by die bestudering van eensaamheid is. Swart adolessente is beduidend meer tot eensaamheid geneig as wit en Kleurling adolessente. Uit hierdie resultate is dit duidelik dat eensaamheid ‘n kommerwekkende, komplekse verskynsel is, wat meer algemeen tydens adolessensie voorkom, en verdere navorsing vereis.af
dc.language.isoafaf
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectDisseration (M.Soc.Sc. (Counselling Psychology))--University of the Free State, 2003en_ZA
dc.subjectLonelinessen_ZA
dc.subjectMoralityen_ZA
dc.subjectAdolescenceen_ZA
dc.subjectGenderen_ZA
dc.subjectAgeen_ZA
dc.subjectLanguageen_ZA
dc.subjectEtnicityen_ZA
dc.subjectPhenomenonen_ZA
dc.subjectSocial problemsen_ZA
dc.subjectTeenagers -- Conduct of lifeen_ZA
dc.subjectLoneliness in adolescenceen_ZA
dc.subjectTeenagers -- Ethicsen_ZA
dc.subjectSocial isolationen_ZA
dc.titleMoraliteit as voorspeller van eensaamheid by adolessente: 'n kruis-kulturele studieaf
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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