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dc.contributor.advisorNel, J. P.
dc.contributor.advisorPretorius, E.
dc.contributor.authorMlisa, Lily-Rose Nomfundo
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-13T08:37:41Z
dc.date.available2016-01-13T08:37:41Z
dc.date.issued2009-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/2171
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The study explores ukuthwasa initiation process amongst amaXhosa women in the Eastern Cape Province. The focus is on the training of women amagqirha in three areas in the Eastern Cape. The study looks at how the women are trained as amagqirha and how they construct their multifaceted identities during their tedious five-year training process. The Komanisi iphehlo is used as a paradigmatic model school for the training of amagqirha. The ritual of ukuthwasa is analysed as a transformational practice that operates changes in those who undergo it. A brief review of the interface between ukuthwasa and Christianity is included and reflections in specific historical and socio-cultural contexts are provided. AmaXhosa have been shaping and reshaping their ethnicity, religious culture, their identities and political systems during the course of political instability and economic and social-cultural challenges, including challenges during the democratic government. Such challenges affected amaXhosa as a nation and their religious life, as traces of such can be observed in transformations that have affected ukuthwasa practice. The study reveals the structure of the training process and incidents that led to the evolution of ukuthwasa, ritualism, symbolism, myth or magic and possible inexplicable realities of the world of ukuthwasa, to reveal the epistemologies and existential realities of ukuthwasa and female experiences. The polymorphism of ukuthwasa demands the use of various theoretical approaches to explain the process and practice of ukuthwasa. Consequently, that led to the use of a triangulation approach as a method of choice to collect, analyse and interpret the data. The grounded theory method was used. The life histories of four trainers and the spiritual journey of the researcher are used as retrospective data to explain the process, existential experiences and practice of ukuthwasa. In total, 115 participants, including amagqirha, faithhealers, public community members, family members of those who thwasa, initiates and key public figures have been interviewed through structured and unstructured interviews. Verification and soundness of data collected are maintained by means of verifying data through focus groups. Results reveal that the amaXhosa experience ukuthwasa as a cultural initiation process that helps in nurturing, awakening and stimulating the person’s umbilini (intuition), which is an inborn gift used in divining. Umbilini is the only skill used to assess, diagnose and treat their clients and patients. Therefore amagqirha use inductive ways of assessing their clients. Through ukuthwasa initiation, women are able to understand their ‘self’ better. Ukuthwasa also instils maturity and opens up insights into their other gifts such as ‘leadership’ skills. In that way, ukuthwasa enhances their identities. In addition, amaXhosa understand ukuthwasa as a reality and an inborn gift that runs in families. The result is also that ukuthwasa is a complex and abstract phenomenon that unfolds as a long process and is never completed fully in its entirety; only death relieves a person from its demands. It is fraught with various crises and to reject it is to invite continuous crises and ultimately madness and death; the best way is to accept it. To treat ukuthwasa as a possession and as a psychological phenomenon or syndrome is to underestimate the primary factor of the inborn disposition’s importance as cultural text and cultural discourse. Variations in the structure and procedures carried out in ukuthwasa are identified within the cultural group and other Nguni cultures, as well as at national and international level. Furthermore, there is an inevitable interface between ukuthwasa and Christianity. The amaXhosa believe in one, universal world. The infusion of cultural doctrines with Christian values leads amagqirha to construct their multiple identities as amagqirha, faith-healers, powerful healing women as well as women leaders in the cultural and Christian healing profession.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Hierdie studie ondersoek ukuthwasa-inisiasieproses onder amaXhosa-vroue in die Oos- Kaap. Die fokus is op die opleiding van vroulike amagqirha in drie gebiede in die Oos-Kaap. Die studie kyk na die wyse waarop vroue opleiding as amagqirha ondergaan en hoe hulle hul veelvlakkige identiteite gedurende hierdie lang opleidingsproses van vyf jaar saamstel. Die Komanisi iphehlo word gebruik as ’n paradigmatiese model skool vir die opleiding van amagqirha. Die ritueel van ukuthwasa word geanaliseer as ’n transformasiepraktyk wat veranderinge bewerkstellig in diegene wat dit deurloop. ’n Kort oorsig oor die raakvlak tussen ukuthwasa en die Christengeloof word ingesluit en daar word spesifiek in historiese en sosiokulturele konteks oor besin. AmaXhosa het hul etnisiteit, godsdienstige kultuur, identiteit en politieke stelsels gevorm en hervorm te midde van politieke onstabiliteit en ekonomiese en sosio-kulturele uitdagings, insluitende uitdagings binne die konteks van die demokratiese regering. Sulke uitdagings het ʼn invloed op die amaXhosa as ʼn nasie in hul godsdiensbelewenis gehad, aangesien tekens daarvan bespeur kan word in transformasieprosesse wat die ukuthwasa-praktyk raak. Die studie openbaar die struktuur van die opleidingsproses en gebeurtenisse wat gelei het tot die evolusie van ukuthwasa, ritueel, simboliek, mites, towerkuns en realiteite van die wêreld van ukuthwasa wat moontlik nie verklaar kan word nie, om sodoende die epistemologie en eksistensiële realiteite van ukuthwasa en die ervarings van vroue weer te gee. Die polimorfie van ukuthwasa vereis die gebruik van verskeie teoretiese benaderings om die proses en praktyk van ukuthwasa te verduidelik. Gevolglik het dit gelei tot die gebruik van ’n drievoudige benadering as ’n metode om die data te versamel, te analiseer en te interpreteer. Die grondslagteorie-metode is gebruik. Die lewensgeskiedenis van vier instrukteurs en die geestelike reis van die navorser word gebruik as retrospektiewe data om die proses, eksistensiële ondervindings en praktyk van ukuthwasa te verduidelik. Onderhoude is met 115 deelnemers gevoer, insluitende amagqirha, geloofsgenesers, lede van die gemeenskap, familielede van diegene wat thwasa, beginners en openbare sleutelfigure, deur middel van gestruktureerde en ongestruktureerde onderhoude. Die verifikasie en betroubaarheid van ingesamelde data is verseker deur die data deur fokusgroepe te laat verifieer. Die bevindings het bevestig dat amaXhosa ukuthwasa as ʼn kulturele inisiasieproses beleef wat meehelp om ʼn persoon se umbilini (intuïsie) – ʼn aangebore gawe wat vir voorspelling gebruik word – te koester, te laat herontwaak en te stimuleer. Umbilini is die enigste vaardigheid wat gebruik word om die kliënte en pasiënte te assesseer, te diagnoseer en te behandel en daarom gebruik amagqirha induktiewe prosesse om hul kliënte te assesseer. Deur middel van ukuthwasa-inisiasieproses word vroue in staat gestel om hul ‘eie ek’ beter te verstaan. Ukuthwasa bring verder volwassenheid teweeg en maak hulle bewus van hul ander gawes, soos die gawe van ‘leierskap’. Sodoende versterk ukuthwasa hul identiteit. Verder beleef amaXhosa ukuthwasa as ’n realiteit en ’n aangebore gawe wat in families aangetref word. Gevolglik is ukuthwasa ’n komplekse en abstrakte verskynsel wat oor ’n lang periode ontwikkel en wat nooit ten volle afgehandel word nie; slegs die dood bevry ’n persoon van die eise wat dit stel. Dit gaan gepaard met verskeie krisisse en om dit te verwerp, is om verdere krisisse uit te lok, wat uiteindelik uitloop op kranksinnigheid en die dood; dit is beter om dit eenvoudig te aanvaar. Om ukuthwasa as ’n geestestoestand en ’n sielkundige verskynsel of sindroom te beskou, is om die primêre oorsaak van die belang van die aangebore gawe as kulturele teks en kulturele diskoers te onderskat. Variasies in die struktuur en prosedures wat tydens ukuthwasa gevolg word, word binne die kulturele groep en ander Nguni-kulture, sowel as op nasionale en internasionale vlak geïdentifiseer. Verder bestaan daar ook ’n onvermydelike raakvlak tussen ukuthwasa en die Christelike geloof. AmaXhosa glo in een, universele wêreld. Die vermenging van kulturele leerstellings met Christelike waardes lei amagqirha daartoe om hulle meervoudige identiteite as amagqirha, geloofsgenesers, invloedryke, genesende vroue te konstrueer, asook as vroueleiers in die kulturele en Christelike geneeskundige professie.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Centre for African Studies))--University of the Free State, 2009en_ZA
dc.subjectHealers -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectTraditional medicine -- South Africa -- Eastern Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectXhosa (African people) -- Rites and ceremoniesen_ZA
dc.subjectXhosa (African people) -- Social life and customsen_ZA
dc.subjectTraining stagesen_ZA
dc.subjectUmbilinien_ZA
dc.subjectAmasikoen_ZA
dc.subjectGender constructionen_ZA
dc.subjectIntlombeen_ZA
dc.subjectAmagqirhaen_ZA
dc.subjectIdentityen_ZA
dc.subjectXhosa rites of passageen_ZA
dc.subjectUkuthwasaen_ZA
dc.subjectIntwasoen_ZA
dc.titleUkuthwasa initiation of amagqirha: identity construction and the training of Xhosa women as traditional healersen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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