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dc.contributor.advisorCilliers, L.
dc.contributor.authorVan den Berg, Marlene
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-20T09:35:49Z
dc.date.available2015-11-20T09:35:49Z
dc.date.copyright2005-11-30
dc.date.issued2007-08-26
dc.date.submitted2005-11-30
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1687
dc.description.abstractEnglish: Not only did the Romans work very hard during the night, but they also enjoyed eating, drinking and partying. Although there were only limited sources of light, they used their evenings and nights optimally. During the first and second centuries A.D., there was a definite renaissance in commercial life, in cities as well as in the country. Basic concepts were standardised, such as the calendar (by Caesar), time reckoning by means of sun dials and water clocks. There were also improvements in the ways of recreation, entertainment and different kinds of artificial light. In this study primary sources of information were used. The chapter on the sources is an endeavour to combine the biographical information of the specific writers and the influence of their milieu on their writing and way of life, with the extracts from their work. Martial and Juvenal give an exaggerated reconstruction, which however contains many apt descriptions of the social milieu. Pliny in his encyclopaedia (Naturalis Historia) gives useful facts on e.g. the making of candles and how time was reckoned in experimental ways,. The question when time should be regarded as “day” or “night” already existed in ancient Rome. When the cock’s crow to announce the morning was no longer regarded as sufficiently correct, night guards were used to announce a new day. That was before scientific inventions such as the sun dial and later the water clock were used to determine time. Lighting was an important factor as it became dark quite early and after sunset, the Romans were dependent on artificial light. Not only did torches, candles and later even lamps enrich the quality of life, but crime was also limited by lighting. Prices and availability of fuel played a big role in the distinction between the social classes. Apart from the personnel of the fire brigade who could be called out at night, bakers, prostitutes, light house sentinels, doctors and bar- and restaurant owners also worked during the night. The army, responsible for the safety of the inhabitants of the country, sometimes had to act during the night, thus it is logical that they had to be on call day and night. Many authors such as Quintilian, Seneca and Pliny the Elder also worked during nighttime. The Roman day ended at around the eighth hour with the cena as the main ac tivity of the late afternoon and evening. It was during this time that citizens were busy eating and drinking in the triclinium to forget the day’s worries. Two relevant issues in modern times are gender inequality and social stratification. From the study it is clear that discrimination is not a modern tendency but already played a role in ancient times. Women and poor people were scoffed, humiliated and deemed inferior. The research field of this dissertation thus lay on the socio-cultural level, with specific reference to the experiences of different social classes and males and females with regard to nocturnal activities in ancient Rome. This study presents a more nuanced picture of the social life in ancient Rome. The central theme of this work, however, stands in contrast with previous studies since nocturnal activities are not mentioned in passing only but are discussed in detail, in order to point out the wide range of these activities.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: Romeine het nie alleen hard gewerk in die nag nie, maar ook lekker geëet, gedrink en partytjie gehou. Alhoewel hulle beperkte ligbronne gehad het, het hulle die aande en nagte optimaal gebruik. In die eerste en tweede eeue v.C. was daar definitief ‘n herlewing in die kommersiële lewe, in die stad sowel as die platteland. Basiese konsepte is gestandardiseer, soos die kalender (deur Caesar), tydsbepaling deur sonhorlosies en waterklokke, en daar was verbeterings in die vorms van vermaak, onthaal en die soorte kunsmatige lig. Daar is van primêre bronne gebruik gemaak in hierdie studie. In die hoofstuk oor die bronne is daar gepoog om die biografiese inligting te kombineer met die uittreksels van die betrokke skrywer en die invloed van hul bepaalde milieu op hul skryfwerk en leefwyse aan te toon. Martialis en Juvenalis gee ‘n oordrewe beeld, maar bevat baie raak beskrywings van die sosiale omstandighede. Plinius gee in sy ensiklopedie (Naturalis Historiae) baie nuttige feite oor byvoorbeeld die maak van kerse en hoe tyd op eksperimentele wyses bepaal is. Die vraag het reeds in antieke Rome ontstaan wanneer tyd as “dag” of as “nag” beskou was. Nadat die hoenderhaan se aankondiging van die oggend nie meer as geloofwaardig beskou is nie, is daar eers van nagwagte gebruik gemaak om ‘n nuwe dag aan te kondig voordat “wetenskaplike” uitvindings soos die sonwyser en later die waterhorlosie gebruik is om tyd mee te bepaal Beligting was ‘n belangrike faktor aangesien dit vroeg donker geword het en mense ná sonsondergang aangewese was op kunsmatige ligbronne. Nie alleen het fakkels, kerse en later lampe mense se lewenskwaliteit verhoog nie, maar misdaad is ook deur goeie beligting beperk. Die prys en beskikbaarheid van brandstowwe het ‘n groot rol in die klasseverskil gespeel. Behalwe die brandweer het onder andere bakkers, prostitute, vuurtoringwagters, mediese dokters en kroeg- en restaurant-eienaars ook in die nag gewerk. Die leër wat verantwoordelik was vir die veiligheid van die land se inwoners; moes soms in die nag optree; dus is dit vanselfsprekend dat hulle in die dag én nag paraat moes wees, asook vele skrywers soos Quintilianus, Seneca en Plinius die Ouere wat in die nag gewerk het. Die Romeinse dag het ongeveer teen die agtste uur geëindig met die cena as die hoofaktiwiteit van die laatmiddag en aand. Dit was die tyd wat mense in die triclinium aangelê het om te eet en drink en van die dag se sorge vergeet het. Twee aktuele sake ter sprake is geslagsongelykheid en sosiale stratifikasie. Uit die stuk is daar klinkklare bewys dat diskriminasie nie ‘n moderne neiging is nie, maar reeds toe ‘n groot rol gespeel het. Daar is op vroue en arm mense neergesien, hulle is verneder en minderwaardig geag. Die navorsingsterrein van hierdie verhandeling het dus gelê op die kultureel-sosiale vlak met spesifieke verwysing na die belewenisse van verskillende sosiale klasse en geslagte met betrekking tot aktiwiteite in die nag in antieke Rome. Hierdie studie bied hopelik ‘n ietwat meer genuanseerde beeld van die sosiale lewe. Die sentrale tema van hierdie werk vorm egter ‘n kontras met vorige werke in dié sin dat nagtelike aktiwiteite nie net terloops genoem is nie, maar in detail bespreek is, teneinde die wye verskeidenheid van aktiwiteite aan te toon.af
dc.language.isoafen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertation (M.A. (English and Classical Languages))--University of the Free State, 2005en_ZA
dc.subjectRome -- Civilizationen_ZA
dc.subjectRome -- Social life and customsen_ZA
dc.subjectRome -- Historyen_ZA
dc.subjectEntertainmenten_ZA
dc.subjectGender inequalityen_ZA
dc.subjectGreek symposium vs Roman commissatioen_ZA
dc.subjectLightingen_ZA
dc.subjectNighttime occupationsen_ZA
dc.subjectNocturnal activitiesen_ZA
dc.subjectReckoning of timeen_ZA
dc.subjectRoman fooden_ZA
dc.subjectSocial stratificationen_ZA
dc.subjectSupper (cena)en_ZA
dc.title'n Kultureel-sosiale studie van nagtelike aktiwiteite in antieke Rome, gebaseer op primêre bronneen_ZA
dc.typeDissertationen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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