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dc.contributor.advisorWalker, Sue
dc.contributor.advisorStroebel, Aldo
dc.contributor.advisorVerschoor, Aart-Jan
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Hendrik Johannes
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-13T08:50:28Z
dc.date.available2015-11-13T08:50:28Z
dc.date.copyright2006-11
dc.date.issued2006-11
dc.date.submitted2006-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11660/1647
dc.description.abstractEnglish: The focus of this research is a localised action research framework, or more specifically, the development of action-research theories based on experiences in a South African Landcare project. The Bergville Landcare project, implemented from 2000 to 2005, was aimed at developing conservation agriculture (CA) practices in a community of resource-poor farmers. These attempts culminated in the development of a soft-system platform on which participatory action research methodologies and techniques could be based in order to facilitate adult and action learning. The following six strategies were identified for the development of such a platform: awareness, local institution building, training-of-trainers, farmer-to-farmer extension, onfarm experimentation and partnerships. The main action-research methodology used to manage these strategies is monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The approach selected for this research is one in which multiple methodologies are deemed the most appropriate for developing theories within the paradigm of constructivism and interactive agricultural science, i.e. a combination of grounded theory, action research and soft-systems methodology (SSM). The design of the research process resulted in effectively using and analysing the different data sources within the following four phases: a) theory as an initial guide to design and data collection; b) application of initial theories in a Landcare project; c) theory as part of an iterative process of data collection and analysis; and d) gaining theoretical and practical insights into the focal research problems. A number of theories relating to action research were seen as critical in the formulation of the process which was applied in the Bergville project. Action research, experiential learning and action learning formed the foundation of the action research approach which was conducted with resource-poor farmers in the Bergville project. In a practical sense, action research was seen as the “umbrella methodology”, applied in harmony with other methodologies, such as SSM, the Farming Systems Approach (FSA), Farmer Participatory Research (FPR), Farmer Field School (FFS) and M&E. The “action research process” applied in the Bergville project was used as the so called ‘Acting’ phase, and was the primary data-source for the research process. The various documents and data used, i.e. project reports, a personal research diary, significant changes and M&E findings, are described comprehensively. A convergent interviewing process was used to obtain an indication of how sustainable the activities and results of the project were. The multi-methodological data analysis and theory development process proved to be successful in establishing local theories for practical application. Cognitive maps were used in combination with a general SSM framework to stimulate data analyses, reflection, learning and ultimately theorising. Three cognitive maps were developed in which local theories for on-farm experimentation, training-of-trainers, farmer-to-farmer extension, local institutionalisation and M&E are explicated. Since the cognitive map is a structuring (conceptualisation) of a complex situation, they were discussed in detail in an attempt to improve their understanding. The most suitable approach for a synthesis of the theorising results appeared to be the integration of the results into an improved theoretical framework addressing the main research questions of this study. This improved framework proved to be that of a systems model which included the major phases of the action-research cycle, and this was used to describe the proposed methodologies and techniques. The proposed six phases of this model are: a) Stakeholder analysis, b) Diagnosis (Situation analysis), c) Planning strategically, d) Implementing and managing, e) Learning and adapting, and f) Exit strategy. This model provides a means of creating a culture of learning that would allow people to be innovative and interactive in the management of natural resources and to collectively care for and manage these resources in a sustainable manner.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAfrikaans: In hierdie tesis word aksienavorsingsteorieë ontwikkel en uitgebrei op grond van die insigte bekom uit ’n Suid-Afrikaanse Landcare-projek. Die Bergville Landcare-projek, wat van 2000 tot 2005 geduur het, het die ontwikkeling van bewaringspraktyke saam met hulpbronarmboere ten doel gehad. Een van hierdie praktyke is ’n “sagtestelsel-platform” wat as basis kan dien vir die metodiek vir deelnemende aksienavorsing sowel as tegnieke waarvolgens volwassenes kennis kan inwin en aksie-leer kan plaasvind. Die volgende ses strategieë vir die ontwikkeling van so ’n platform is geïdentifiseer: bewusmaking, opbou van plaaslike instellings, opleiding van opleiers, boer-tot-boer-voorligting, op-die-plaas-eksperimentering en vennootskappe. Die hoof aksienavorsingsmetode wat gebruik is om hierdie strategieë te bestuur, is monitering-enevaluering (M&E). In die benadering wat in hierdie navorsing gevolg is, word klem gelê op die gebruik van ’n veelvuldige metodiek, oftewel ’n kombinasie van “grondteorie” (grounded theory), aksienavorsing en sagtestelsel-metodes (SSM). Dit word gesien as die mees toepaslike metodiek vir die ontwikkeling van teorieë binne die paradigma van die konstruktivistiese en interaktiewe landbouwetenskappe. Die ontwerp van die navorsingsproses was gerig op die effektiewe gebruik en analise van die verskillende databronne in die volgende vier fases: a) bestaande teorieë as ’n gids tot prosesontwerp en die versameling van data; b) toepassing van hierdie teorieë in ’n Landcare-projek; c) ’n teoreties gefundeerde, iteratiewe proses van dataversameling en -analise; en d) verkryging van teoretiese en praktiese insigte in die navorsingsprobleme. ’n Aantal teorieë verwant aan aksienavorsing is as bepalend beskou vir die ntwerp van die proses wat in die Bergville-projek toegepas is. Aksienavorsing, leer deur eksperimentering en aksieleer was die basis van die aksienavorsingsbenadering wat saam met die hulpbronarm boere in die Bergville-projek onderneem is. Uit praktiese oorwegings is aksienavorsing gesien as die “oorhoofse metodiek” wat saam met ander benaderings soos SSM, Farming Systems Approach (FSA), Farmer Participatory Research (FPR), Farmer Field School (FFS) en M&E toegepas is. Die aksienavorsing wat in die Bergville-projek gedoen is, is as die “aksie”-fase en primêre bron van data vir die navorsingsbevindings gebruik. Die verskillende dokumente en data wat gebruik is, naamlik projekverslae, ’n persoonlike navorsingsdagboek, “betekenisvolle veranderinge” en M&E-bevindinge, word uitvoerig beskryf. Konvergerende onderhoudvoering (convergent interviewing) is gebruik om ’n aanduiding van die volhoubaarheid van die projek-aktiwiteite en - resultate te kry. Die data-analise en teorie-ontwikkeling volgens ’n veelvuldige metodiek het effektief bygedra tot die konstruering van prakties toepaslike plaaslike teorieë. Kognitiewe kaarte (cognitive maps) is saam met ’n algemene SSM-raamwerk gebruik om data-analise, reflektering, leer en uiteindelike teoretisering te stimuleer. Drie kognitiewe kaarte is ontwikkel waarin plaaslike teorieë uiteengesit word vir grondvlakinstellings, opleiding van opleiers, boer-tot-boer-voorligting, opdie- plaas-eksperimentering en M&E. Omdat die kognitiewe kaart ’n strukturering (konseptualisering) van ’n komplekse situasie is, is hulle vir beter begrip in fyn besonderhede bespreek. Die mees geskikte benadering vir ’n sintese van die teoretiseringsresultate was om dit te integreer in ’n verbeterde teoretiese raamwerk wat gerig is op die vernaamste navorsingsvrae. Die voorgestelde metodiek en tegnieke is daarom beskryf volgens ’n iteratiewe stelsel-model waarin die hooffases van die aksienavorsingsiklus ingesluit is. Die voorgestelde ses fases van die model is: a) rolspeler-analise; b) diagnose; c) strategiese beplanning; d) implementering en bestuur; e) leer en aanpassing; en f) uitfasering-strategie. Die verwagte uitkomste van hierdie model is dat dit ’n strategie bied vir die kweek van ’n leerkultuur wat mense in staat sal stel om innoverend en interaktief te wees in die benutting en bestuur van natuurlike hulpbronne en om hierdie bestuur kollektief en op ’n volhoubare wyse te doen.af
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA
dc.subjectLocal institutionalisationen_ZA
dc.subjectFarmer-to-farmer extensionen_ZA
dc.subjectOn-farm experimentationen_ZA
dc.subjectTraining-of-trainersen_ZA
dc.subjectCognitive mappingen_ZA
dc.subjectMulti-stakeholder processesen_US
dc.subjectMonitoring and evaluationen_ZA
dc.subjectSoft systems methodologyen_ZA
dc.subjectGrounded theoryen_ZA
dc.subjectConstructivismen_ZA
dc.subjectConservation agricultureen_ZA
dc.subjectSustainable agricultureen_ZA
dc.subjectNatural resources -- South Africa -- Bergville -- Managementen_ZA
dc.subjectSustainable agriculture -- South Africa -- Bergvilleen_ZA
dc.subjectThesis (Ph.D. (Centre for Sustainable Agriculture))--University of the Free State, 2006en_ZA
dc.titleDevelopment of a systems model facilitating action research with resource-poor farmers for sustainable management of natural resourcesen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of the Free Stateen_ZA


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